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Srivastava A.K.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Lokhande V.H.,University of Pune | Patade V.Y.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Patade V.Y.,University of Pune | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2010

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different seed priming methods to enhance the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000) stress tolerance in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Seeds subjected to different priming treatments such as water (hydro-priming), calcium chloride (CaCl2) (chemo-priming), and abscisic acid (ABA) (hormonal-priming) showed increased rate of germination as compared to non-primed seeds. The primed and non-primed seeds were grown for 15 days and then the seedlings were independently subjected to iso-osmotic salt (150 mM NaCl) or PEG-8000 (20%) stress. The different biochemical responses were studied 10 days after treatment. Under NaCl and PEG stress, the dry weight and total chlorophyll content were higher in primed sets as compared to non-primed treatment which was also evident by the phenotype of the seedlings. In general, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase resulted in lower oxidative damage, in terms of malondialdehyde content, under NaCl and PEG stress in hydro-primed set as compared to non-primed, ABA-, and CaCl2-primed treatments. Besides, the level of total phenolics and accumulation of osmolytes such as free proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars was also lower in hydro-primed set as compared to other primed and non-primed treatments. The study thus suggests the use of hydro-priming as a simple and cost-effective strategy to alleviate the NaCl and PEG induced stress in B. juncea. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Clarke H.J.,University of Western Australia | Kumari M.,University of Western Australia | Kumari M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Khan T.N.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2011

Albinism is viewed as a major experimental bottleneck during wide hybridization in several species; the phenomenon is also widely reported in androgenesis and doubled haploid cultures. In this study, when chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was crossed with distant wild relatives, C. judaicum and C. pinnatifidum, the only hybrid embryos that survived were those rescued using in vitro techniques. Fourteen to 21-day-old embryos were incubated in ML6 medium with 90 g l-1 sucrose, 1 mg l-1 zeatin and 0. 25 mg l-1 indole acetic acid. Germinating embryos were dissected from the ovule and transferred to fresh medium without growth regulators. Later, shoots were micropropagated on solid MS medium, supplemented with B5 vitamins, 30 g l-1 sucrose, 0. 1 mg l-1 6-benzyladenine and 0. 01 mg l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid. Although some post-hybridization barriers were overcome by rescue in vitro, regenerated hybrid plantlets failed to thrive in culture and few survived transfer to soil. Here we report findings from characterization of this valuable breeding material, as a step towards a better understanding of albinism in chickpea wide hybrids and other plant tissue cultures. Following proliferation, hybrids were phenotyped as green, pale green and albino. Genotype affected pod set, regeneration and albinism. Plastid ultrastructure studies using transmission electron microscopy revealed that thylakoid membranes were well-formed in green hybrids but not in albinos. Spectrophotometric analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids revealed that chlorophyll content was three to fourfold lower in albino compared to green hybrids; moreover green hybrids had two to threefold lower total chlorophyll content than in vitro-grown plantlets of their parents. In contrast, carotenoids were higher in some albino phenotypes and lower in others; however overall differences in carotenoids were less marked between all genotypes compared to chlorophyll pigments. Genetic variability between different wide crosses provides an opportunity to select certain chickpea parents and wild species which give rise to more frequent green hybrid regenerants. In future, only these hybrids will be maintained and multiplied for transfer to the glasshouse in our program. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Meena H.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pandey H.K.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pandey P.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Arya M.C.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Background: Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. Results: The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (P<0.05) in their antioxidant values. The methanolic extract of whole leaf powder of Baccopa monnieri exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than the Centella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.


Kumar K.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pathak R.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

A study was conducted to examine the phytochemical and antibacterial potential of non-polar solvent (hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, and toluene) based Camelina sativa cv. Calena (EC643910) seed extracts for future investigation into the field of pharmacology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and other biological actions for drug discovery. Among all tested extracts, hexane (disc 1) showed no inhibition zone against any pathogens, while petroleum ether based camelina seed extract (disc 2) showed sensitive activity with inhibition zones ranging from ~12 to 20 mm against most of the tested pathogens. Similarly, chloroform extract (disc 4) also showed significant activity with inhibition zones ranging from ~11 to 21 mm against all tested pathogens. Toluene extract showed no inhibition zone against Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thurengenensis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, but showed significant inhibition zones ranging from ~13 to 18 mm, against Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Ralstonia solanacearum. The inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 29 mm for antibacterial activity against standard drug (disc 3 and 6). Chloroform extract showed highest phenolic (~3–4 µg g−1 dry wt), terpene (~2.6 µg of linalool g−1 dry wt), alkaloid (5 µg of atropine g−1 dry wt) and free amino acid (6.4 µg g−1 dry wt) accumulation, whereas petroleum ether extract showed highest (21.5 %) free radical scavenging property. Based on the phytochemical and antibacterial potential with different extracts, camelina was identified as the most suitable source for drug discovery. © 2016, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


Yadav P.V.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Kumari M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Research Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2011

Seed priming is a simple pre-germination strategy to improve seed performance and alleviate the negative effects associated with stress exposure. Seed priming technique was used in capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. cv. California Wonder) to improve seed germination and tolerance on subsequent stress exposure. Capsicum seeds were treated with various priming agents for 24 h with moderate shaking. The effect of priming was assessed on germination and survival on subsequent exposure to salt (NaCl, 200 mM) or cold (4°C) stress for 10 days. Seed priming treatments significantly (p<0.05) affected rate as well as the germination percentage under control, non-stressed condition. Seed priming with normal water (NW), warm water (40°C; WW) or NaCl (50 mM; NA) significantly (p<0.05) increased the germination percentage by 7 to 17% as compared to the control. On cold exposure, the highest rate of seed germination and opening of cotyledonary leaves recorded in terms of Timson's index (94 and 56.9 respectively) was observed in thiourea (TU, 1.3 mM) primed seeds. The germination percentage was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in primed seeds (97.5 to 100%) as compared to the control (85%). Only the seedlings grown from TU, hydrogen peroxide (HP, 1.5 mM) or ABA (AB, 100 \iM) primed seeds tolerated the cold or salt stress exposure of 10 days with 100% survival. However, the control seedlings could not survive the salt or cold stress exposure. The plants grown from primed seeds under controlled conditions flowered earlier than the control and produced more number of fruits than the control. Thus, the results suggest chemical seed priming as an efficient approach for cold or salt stress tolerance in capsicum. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Gupta S.M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Grover A.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pandey P.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2012

Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Seabuckthorn) grows in stressful environment of high altitude under conditions of low temperature and low availability of water. We have studied gender based differences in physiochemical response to cold stress in male and female plants of Seabuckthorn. After 24 h of cold stress about 32 and 66 % higher electrolyte leakage (EL) was recorded in male and female plants respectively. Relative water content (RWC) at the end of 24 h stress was higher in male plants (~64 %) compared to female plants (~60 %). Proline content in leaf samples of cold stressed male and female plants also increased upon cold stress. After 24 h about 2.7 fold higher amount of proline was assessed in male and female in comparison to control plants. Similarly, about two fold increase in the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was also observed upon cold stress in male and female plants. These findings have important inferences for community of molecular biologists exploring seabuckthorn genome for agronomically important genes. © 2012 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.


Gupta S.M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pandey P.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Negi P.S.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pande V.,Kumaun University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

We have isolated and in silico characterized a cold-induced LlaDREB1b encoding a putative DRE-binding transcription factor from Lepidium latifolium. Its cDNA (JN214345) sequence (998 bp) consisted of a 642 bp ORF, 168 and 188 bp of 5′ and 3′ UTR regions, respectively, encoding a protein of 213 aa with deduced molecular mass 23.85 kDa and pI of 4.63. In silico and phylogenetic analysis further suggested that the protein showed features of a typical member of the AP2/EREBP family of DNA-binding proteins. Southern blot analysis indicated that multiple copies of the gene could be present in the genome. Its transcripts were abundant in leaves, petiole and stem, but scarce in roots and could strongly be induced by cold treatment (4 C), weakly by drought and salt stress, and did not respond to ABA treatment. Thus, LlaDREB1b is a potential candidate for abiotic stress-tolerance engineering in crop plants upon its further functional validation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kumari M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Grover A.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Yadav P.V.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Arif M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2013

Jatropha curcas L. is gaining importance as a potential energy crop. However, lack of sufficient numbers of molecular markers hinder current research on crop improvement in Jatropha. The expressed sequences tags (EST) sequences deposited in public databases, offers an excellent opportunity to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) through data mining, for further research on molecular breeding. In the present study 42,477 ESTs of J. curcas were screened, out of which 5,673 SSRs were identified with 48.8 % simple (excluding mononucleotide repeats) and 52.2 % compound repeat motifs. Amongst these repeat motifs, dinucleotide repeats were abundant (26.5 %), followed by trinucleotide (23.1 %) and tetranucleotide repeats (0.8 %). From these microsatellites, 32 EST-SSR (genic microsatellite) primer pairs were designed. These primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity among 42 accessions collected from different parts of India. Out of the 32 EST-SSR primers, 24 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism among the genotypes, with amplicons varying from one to eight, giving an average of 2.33 alleles per polymorphic marker. Polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.02 to 0.5 with an average of 0.402 indicating moderate level of informativeness within these EST-SSRs markers. The EST-SSR markers developed here will serve as a valuable resource for genetic studies, like linkage mapping, diversity analysis, quantitative trait locus/association mapping, and molecular breeding. The current study also revealed low diversity in the screened Indian Jatropha germplasm. Therefore, the future efforts must be made to broaden the gene pool of Jatropha for the creation of genetic diversity that can be further used for crop improvement through breeding. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea.


Gupta S.M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Pandey P.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Grover A.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2011

Seed dormancy is an important limiting factor in exploitation of an economically important species to its fullest. Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (seabuckthorn), a rich source of medicinal metabolites shows both exogenous and endogenous dormancy. Evidently, we recorded a high seed viability (94 %) but poor germination (22 %) of untreated seeds. We applied different pre-sowing seed priming treatments including NaCl (50, 100, 200, 500 mM), KNO 3 (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 %), Thiourea (1, 2, 3 %), GA 3 (100, 250, 500 mg/L), Sulphuric acid (98 %) and cold (4 °C) and warm water (65 °C) stratifications to explore improvements in its germination percentage, if any. We found KNO 3 (0.1 %) and Thiourea (1 %) treatments to be superior to other methods for enhancement of mean seed germination percentage of H. salicifolia. Considering the practical applicability and cost effectiveness, these treatments can be applied to overcome seed dormancy and recommended for mass multiplication through seeds of H. salicifolia. © 2011 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.


Patade V.Y.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Kumari M.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research DIBER
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2011

Seed priming is a pre-germination strategy that improves seed performance and overcomes the negative effects associated with stress exposure. Seeds of capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. California Wonder were primed with warm water (WW, 40°C); CuSO 4 (CU, 5mM), potassium nitrate (PN, 300 mM), and polyethylene glycol, PEG-6000 (PG, 16.7 mM), along with hydropriming (NW) and unsoaked (US) control to study the effect of seed priming. The seed priming significantly increased the rate as well as percentage of seed germination. Further, survival response of the seedlings obtained from primed seeds was better than the control on subsequent exposure to salt (NaCl 200 mM) or cold (4°C) stress for 10 days. All the plants obtained from potassium nitrate-primed seeds survived the salt-stress exposure, whereas those obtained from PEG-primed seeds tolerated both the cold and salt stresses. The control seedlings did not survive exposure to either stress. In addition, the growth performance of the plants obtained from primed seeds was better than control, suggesting chemical seed priming was a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for developing cold or salt-stress tolerance in capsicum. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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