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Ananthan P.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Sharma G.K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Thimma G.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Bawa A.S.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2012

Omega-3-rich bar was developed using flax seed and walnut as sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Bars packed in polypropylene (PP, 75μ), paper (42 GSM) aluminum foil (20μ) polyethylene (PFP, 37.5μ) and metalized polyester (12μ) low-density/linear low-density (MP 150μ) (with and without vacuum) films, were stored under ambient conditions and 37C. The bars packed in PP films spoiled with in 1 month, while those packed in PFP and MP films found stable for 3 months, and the one packed under vacuum in MP film remained stable and acceptable up to 5 months under ambient and 37C conditions. Chemical changes like PV, free fatty acid, thiobarbituric acid and browning index were found more in bars packed in PP films both at ambient conditions and 37C. Oleic acid was found to be the major fatty acid followed by linoleic acid having 2.8g of omega-3 fatty acid per 100g bar. Practical Applications: Omega-3-rich bar was prepared using flaxseed and walnut as the main source of omega-3-fatty acids to cater to the needs of consumers especially vegetarians. Foods rich in omega-3-fatty acids have proven to be beneficial in improving cardiovascular health, cognitive function, inflammatory problems etc. This bar can be described as a healthy, nutritious, calorie rich and a delicious sweet product. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Pandareesh M.D.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Anand T.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Scopolamine is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and thus classified as an anti-muscarinic and anti-cholinergic drug. PC12 cell lines possess muscarinic receptors and mimic the neuronal cells. These cells were treated with different concentrations of scopolamine for 24 h and were protected from the cellular damage by pretreatment with Bacopa monniera extract (BME). In current study, we have explored the molecular mechanism of neuromodulatory and antioxidant propensity of (BME) to attenuate scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity using PC12 cells. Our results elucidate that pretreatment of PC12 cells with BME ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by 3 μg/ml scopolamine to 54.83 and 30.30 % as evidenced by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays respectively. BME (100 μg/ml) ameliorated scopolamine effect by down-regulating acetylcholine esterase and up-regulating brain-derived neurotropic factor and muscarinic muscarinic-1 receptor expression. BME pretreated cells also showed significant protection against scopolamine-induced toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. This result indicates that the scopolamine-induced cytotoxicity and neuromodulatory changes were restored with the pretreatment of BME. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Khan M.A.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Semwal A.D.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Sharma G.K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Bawa A.S.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Instant wheat porridge (Dalia) mix based on precooked broken wheat, sugar, skim milk powder and flavouring agents was developed using response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design. Stability of instant wheat porridge (Dalia) mix packed in polypropylene (PP) and metallised polyester (MP) pouches was evaluated. Instant porridge (Dalia) mix remained stable for 9 and 12 m respectively in PP and MP pouches under ambient temperature (15-34 °C) conditions. Deterioration in instant porridge mix during storage was mainly caused by autoxidation of lipids, browning due to maillard reaction and development of off-flavour. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2012.


Yadav D.N.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Patki P.E.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Srihari S.P.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Sharma G.K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar | Bawa A.S.,Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2010

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of whole-wheat flour (WWF) as well as its chapatti making quality. Whole wheat flour samples were heat treated through various means such as (i) dipping in boiling water (BW) for 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min; (ii) inpack heating under pressure (PH) at 0.352 kg/cm 2 for 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 min; (iii) microwave heat treatment (MW) at 900 Watt, 2450 MHz for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 s. Studies showed that the heat treatment effectively reduced PPO level in whole wheat flour; although, it had adverse effect on the dough-making quality. Based on textural analysis of dough and chapatti as well as sensory scores of chapatti, the conditions for each of the treatments were optimized, i.e., (i) Dipping in boiling water (BW) for 30 min; (ii) inpack heating under pressure (PH) at 0.352 kg/cm 2 for 10 min; and (iii) microwave heating (MW) for 80 s. A maximum reduction (71.2%) in PPO activity of WWF using microwave treatment could be achieved followed by PH (56.9%) and BW (38.3%). The changes in colour of unbaked chapattis (flattened circular dough, diameter 150.0 mm and thickness 2.0 mm) and changes in quality of baked chapattis were measured to assess the effectiveness of the heat treatment. The L-value (lightness) decreased from 65.2 to 55.8, 65.7 to 58.3, 65.9 to 61.4, and 64.8 to 49.1 in case of BW, PH, MW treated, and control samples, respectively during the 72 h of storage under refrigeration temperature (5-6°C).


PubMed | National University of Ireland, University of Mysore, Defence Food Research Laboratory Siddarthanagar and Bharathiar University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2015

The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 g/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 g/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 g/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 g/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250-1500 g/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

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