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Wadikar D.D.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL | Premavalli K.S.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of appetizer administration on plasma leptin levels of human volunteers. The ginger-based appetizers, namely ginger munch, fruit munch, jeera munch and appetizer drink, developed in the Defence Food Research Laboratory were used for 45 volunteers. Leptin was analyzed using the BioSource enzyme-amplified sensitivity immunoassay kit. The fasting plasma leptin level for men and women ranged between 0.5 and 19.5 ng/ml and between 2 and 36 ng/ml, respectively. The decreased (6-16%) plasma leptin levels after consumption of appetizers indicated their appetizing effect. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Ilaiyaraja N.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2011

The protective effect of a methanolic extract (ME) of Acorus calamus against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress was studied in rats. The in vitro assays using DPPH and ABTS showed a strong antioxidant activity of the extract with the total polyphenolic content of 156 mg/g. Chronic ethanol administration causes an increase in oxidative stress and tissue injury with decreased antioxidant status. In this study, continuous administration of ethanol (7.9 g/kg body weight/day) for a period of 6 weeks resulted in a significant (p < .001) increase in the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phospahatase, and bilirubin with the decreased level of total antioxidant status. Moreover, the levels of lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde and hydroperoxides) as well as protein carbonyl content were also increased (p < .001), whereas the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) decreased significantly in the liver tissues of ethanol-administered control rats. Pretreatment of rats with ME at doses of 300 and 600 g/kg body weight before alcohol administration significantly reduced the hepatic marker enzymes, level of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation, and increased the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in liver. These observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Overall, the present study shows that the administration of ME ameliorates the antioxidant status as well as protects against the toxic effects of ethanol in rats, thereby suggesting its use as an effective botanical supplement for hepatoprotection. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Nallamuthu I.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL | Devi A.,University of Madras | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body. © 2015 Shenyang Pharmaceutical University.

Ilaiyaraja N.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL
International Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2010

Protective effect of leaves of Cichorium intybus was studied against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The aqueous extract at the dose of 200 mg and 400 mg/kg b.wt were prefed to the rats for 30 days followed by intoxication with a single overdose of paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt). After 24 hours, all the animals were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results shows that paracetamol induces hepatotoxicity with significant increase in serum biochemical markers such as glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin and reduces the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes as well. Supplementation of the aqueous extract lowered these changes significantly (p<0.05) as compared to paracetamol control group only at the higher dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt. Prefeeding of the extract also resulted in significant increase (p<0.05) in the decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutamate-s-tranferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD). The present study indicate the hepatoprotective properties of Chicory leaf as observed through the improvement in the antioxidant status, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of the extract. © IJIB, All rights reserved.

Mithila M.V.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory DFRL
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2014

Guggulsterone or guggulipid is a steroidal constituent present in the neutral fraction of gum resin of Commiphora mukul, commonly known as guggul. The traditional uses of guggul-resin extract are well documented in the Ayurveda-where it is prescribed to treat a variety of ailments including lipid-related disorders such as obesity and arteriosclerosis. The hypolipidemic activity of the extracts known since ancient times can be traced to the two closely related steroidal ketones, E-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone. In this study, we have investigated the dose dependent (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) effect of guggulsterones on appetite regulating hormones [ghrelin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK)] and neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine), which play a major role in the energy homeostasis and thus influence obesity related factors. We have also studied its effect on food intake, body weight and plasma triglycerides and glucose in rats. Guggulsterones at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was able to significantly reduce food intake and limit body weight gain over a period of 15 days. It also significantly decreased the plasma ghrelin, glucose, triglyceride levels and increased plasma leptin, serotonin, dopamine levels, but did not show much effect on CCK levels. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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