Defence Food Research Laboratory

Mysore, India

Defence Food Research Laboratory

Mysore, India
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George J.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Bacterial cellulose obtained from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in the form of long fibers were acid hydrolyzed under controlled conditions to obtain cellulose nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the formation of rod like cellulose nanocrystals having an average diameter and length of 20 ± 5 nm and 290 ± 130 nm respectively. These nanocrystals were used to prepare gelatin nanocomposite films and characterized for elucidating its performance. The formation of percolated networks of cellulose nanocrystals within gelatin matrix resulted in improving the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The moisture sorption and water vapor permeability (WVP) studies revealed that the addition of cellulose nanocrystals reduced the moisture affinity of gelatin, which is very favorable for edible packaging applications. Results of this study demonstrated the use of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) in the fabrication of edible, biodegradable and high-performance nanocomposite films for food packaging applications at relatively low cost. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shiby V.K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Mishra H.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 106 cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kumar K.H.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a major reactive oxygen species produced during oxidative stress, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative conditions. Cyperus rotundus is a traditional medicinal herb that has recently found applications in food and confectionary industries. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (CRE) through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic machinery to attenuate H2O2-induced cell damage on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been explored. The results obtained demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with CRE for 2 h before administration of H2O2 for 24 h ameliorates the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 as evidenced by MTT and LDH assays. CRE exhibited potent antioxidant activity by regulating the enzymes/proteins levels such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, HSP-70, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. The pretreatment restored H2O2-induced cellular, nuclear, and mitochondrial morphologies as well as increased the expression of Brain derived nerve growth factor (BDNF). The anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potentials of the plant extract may account for its high content of phenolics, flavonoids, and other active principles. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRE might be developed as an agent for neurodegeneration prevention or therapy. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Venuprasad M.P.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Hemanth Kumar K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2013

Oxidative stress mediates the cell damage in several ailments including neurodegenerative conditions. Ocimum sanctum is widely used in Indian ayurvedic medications to cure various ailments. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of O. sanctum (OSE) on hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2)-induced oxidative challenge in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity against DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values of 395 ± 16.2, 241 ± 11.5 and 188.6 ± 12.2 μg/ml respectively, which could be due to high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids. The observed data demonstrates 41.5 % cell survival with 100 μM H2O2 challenge for 24 h, which was restored to 73 % by pre-treatment with OSE for 2 h. It also decreased the lactate dehydrogenase leakage and preserved the cellular morphology. Similarly OSE inhibited lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species generation and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. The extract restored superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme/protein levels and further downregulated HSP-70 over-expression. These findings suggest that OSE ameliorates H2O 2 induced neuronal damage via its antioxidant defence mechanism and might be used to treat oxidative stress mediated neuronal disorders. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Pal A.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Response surface methodology was used for process optimization to covalently immobilize xylanase on the surface of glutaraldehyde-alginate beads. The process, optimized with respect to minimum 'enzyme load', had an efficiency of >91%. An increase in Km (from 0.9 to 1.49%), Vmax (from 7092 to 8000 IU/ml), optimum pH (from 5 to 5.5) and temperature (from 40 to 45°C) was recorded after immobilization. An improvement in thermostability of immobilized xylanase, judged by increased half-lives and D-values, was also observed. Thermodynamically, the better stability of immobilized xylanase could be attributed to the increase in enthalpy (ΔH°) and free energy (ΔG°) change after covalent attachment. The enzyme could be reused 5 times while retaining >85% of its original activity. The method of immobilization can overcome the problem of reduced permeability of xylan, a high molecular weight substrate, to its enzyme which is conventionally entrapped within the alginate beads. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pal A.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2011

An extracellular xylanase was purified from Aspergillus niger DFR-5 up to absolute homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 fractionation (30-65%), size exclusion (Sephadex G-100) and ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose) chromatography. The preparation yielded a single peak in RP-HPLC confirming its purity. Molecular mass of xylanase as revealed by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was ∼32 kDa confirming its monomeric nature. Various kinetic parameters of xylanase towards thermo-inactivation were calculated. ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° of thermal denaturation suggested that enzyme undergoes significant processes of aggregation instead of unfolding during denaturation. A central composite rotatable design was used to study the interactive effects of temperature, pH and time on xylanase stability which revealed the existence of significant interactions between them. A regression equation was developed to deduce the residual activity of xylanase under any conditions of experimental parameters within the domain. The findings will be useful while applying the enzyme in different juice clarification where pH varies considerably. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hygreeva D.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Pandey M.C.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Radhakrishna K.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Growing concern about diet and health has led to development of healthier food products. In general consumer perception towards the intake of meat and meat products is unhealthy because it may increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer, because of its high fat content (especially saturated fat) and added synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Addition of plant derivatives having antioxidant components including vitamins A, C and E, minerals, polyphenols, flavanoids and terpenoids in meat products may decrease the risk of several degenerative diseases. To change consumer attitudes towards meat consumption, the meat industry is undergoing major transformations by addition of nonmeat ingredients as animal fat replacers, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, preferably derived from plant sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Pandareesh M.D.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Anand T.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2014

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a widely used nitric oxide (NO) donor, known to exert nitrative stress by up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). N x-nitro-L-arginine-methyl esther (L-NAME) is a NO inhibitor, which inhibits iNOS expression, is used as positive control. The present study was designed to assess neuroprotective propensity of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) in SNP-induced neuronal damage and oxido-nitrative stress in PC12 cells via modulation of iNOS, heat shock proteins and apoptotic markers. Our results elucidate that pre-treatment of PC12 cells with BME ameliorates the mitochondrial and plasma membrane damage induced by SNP (200 μM) as evidenced by MTT and LDH assays. BME pre-treatment inhibited NO generation by down regulating iNOS expression. BME replenished the depleted antioxidant status induced by SNP treatment. SNP-induced damage to cellular, nuclear and mitochondrial integrity was also restored by BME, which was confirmed by ROS estimation, comet assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assays respectively. BME pre-treatment efficiently attenuated the SNP-induced apoptotic protein biomarkers such as Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome- c and caspase-3, which orchestrate the proteolytic damage of the cell. Q-PCR results further elucidated up-regulation of neuronal cell stress markers like HO-1 and iNOS and down-regulation of BDNF upon SNP exposure was attenuated by BME pre-treatment. By considering all these findings, we report that BME protects PC12 cells against SNP-induced toxicity via its free radical scavenging and neuroprotective mechanism. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

Pal A.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effects of solid substrates, initial moisture content, moistening medium, temperature and incubation time on xylanase production by Aspergillus niger DFR-5 was studied and the highest activity (2596 IU/g dry substrate (gds)) was achieved in medium that contained wheat bran (WB) and soybean cake (SBC) at a ratio of 70:30, was moistened to 70% with MSS-2 mineral salt solution, and incubated for 6 days at 40 °C. Water at 37 °C was suitable for efficient recovery of enzyme from moldy WB-SBC medium. The extraction parameters for xylanase were optimized with respect to minimum volume of extractant using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum recovery of xylanase (4465 ± 52 IU/gds) with 92.5% desirability was obtained employing water (10 ml/gds) as extractant at 200 rpm for 60 min. The result shows that an overall 5.4-fold increase in xylanase production was obtained in concentrated form by optimizing medium components and extraction conditions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bawa A.S.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Anilakumar K.R.,Defence Food Research Laboratory
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. © 2012 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

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