Singh N.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Balasubramanian K.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2014
Speciation and recovery of U(vi) ions from nuclear wastewater is a heavy challenge for various nuclear centers and research organizations. In this perspective, the present research work aims at using cost effective cellulose nanofibers for the reclamation of these incurable ions. Cellulose nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and functionalized with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) obtained from the camphor soot with noticeable metal sorption capacity. Sorption capability was ascertained by conducting systematic batch experiments for the optimization of parameters such as CNP dosage, pH selectivity, and dosage of nanofibers. The results indicated fast uptake of U(vi) ions, which was significantly observed at pH 6 with an adsorption percentage of 97 from mimicked solution within a period of 120 minutes. 85% of U(vi) was removed from an aqueous solution with an adsorbent dosage of 50 mg. The maximum adsorption capacity was noted to be 410 mg g-1 with 96% adsorption at varying concentration within a period of 60 min. Adsorptive uptake capacity of U(vi) ions was described with adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich). Pseudo first order and Elovich model defined the sorption kinetics with good correlation regression values (R2 = 0.99). The cellulose-camphor soot nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Further, thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous for the uptake of U(vi) ions. Reusability of the fibers was effectively performed with 0.1 M CH3COOH and HCOOH with contact duration of 30 min. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Connolly M.J.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps | Year: 2015
The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends—Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health. © 2015, Royal Army Medical College. All rights reserved
Gould M.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
Military Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: Knowledge of patients' preferences of military mental health care is required to inform service planning. The objective was to inform service planning by quantifying, and identifying predictors of, patient preferences for mental health care providers and location of facilities. Method: Sociodemographic and service characteristics and concerns about stigma were investigated for patients presenting to 4 U.K. Armed Forces Departments of Community Mental Health over a 2-months period (n = 163). Results: 5% preferred to be seen by a uniformed mental health clinician, 30% by a nonuniformed clinician, and 65% reported no preference. Gender and service were associated with care provider preference and service was associated with location preference. Conclusion: The Armed Forces need to explore and identify ways of accommodating their patients' preference, especially regarding the uniformed status of their care provider, to achieve good engagement and acceptability.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2012.5.2-3. | Award Amount: 2.95M | Year: 2012
Marine biofouling can be defined as the colonization of man-made surfaces in seawater by microscopic and macroscopic organisms. This phenomenon can result in great loss of function and effectiveness both for cruising ships and for static constructions. Of special concern is the negative effects of hard foulers such as barnacles, which cause : (i) increased drag resistance resulting in up to 40% increases fuel consumption, and (ii) disruption of the corrosion protective layer of marine vessels and constructions. Current antifouling technologies are based either on release of biocides or on low-adhesion coatings, e.g. silicone based coatings. Present biocide-based strategies are based on a continuous exposure of biocides at the film/water interface and consequently release into the environment if the antifouling efficacy is to be maintained. Such biocide-based solutions can therefore not be regarded as sustainable. Low adhesion coatings suffer from drawbacks of low durability and associated high material and maintenance costs. Therefore, there is currently no sustainable and cost-efficient solution available on the market today to minimize the costly and environmentally important problem of marine biofouling of marine vessels and constructions. Recently we have reported  a novel method to deal with hard fouler such as barnacles. This approach is not based on the exposure and release of biocide into the water. Instead it is based on the direct contact between biocide residing inside a coating and fouling organisms such as the barnacles. The technical challenge of the project is to find the optimal combination of biocide/coating matrix in order to completely eliminate the release of biocides. Expected impacts of the project are: lower fuel consumption, lower dispersion of biocide, reduced maintenance cost and longer life time (economical aspects) together with, reduced accumulation in the system of biocides and CO2 and reduced alien species transportation by ships
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.2.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2012
The HIPOW Project aims to develop a holistic regime for protection of critical infrastructures against threats from electromagnetic radiation. The holistic regime will include guidance regarding hardening measures and robust architectures, a suggested risk management process applicable on organizational level, input to standards and guidelines applicable for critical infrastructures on national and European level. The project will conduct real experiments and tests on components and systems that constitute parts of critical infrastructures and develop a prototype sensor that can detect radiation. Based on the experiments the project will recommend detection and protective measures.