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Gosport, United Kingdom

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Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2012.5.2-3. | Award Amount: 2.95M | Year: 2012

Marine biofouling can be defined as the colonization of man-made surfaces in seawater by microscopic and macroscopic organisms. This phenomenon can result in great loss of function and effectiveness both for cruising ships and for static constructions. Of special concern is the negative effects of hard foulers such as barnacles, which cause [1]: (i) increased drag resistance resulting in up to 40% increases fuel consumption, and (ii) disruption of the corrosion protective layer of marine vessels and constructions. Current antifouling technologies are based either on release of biocides or on low-adhesion coatings, e.g. silicone based coatings. Present biocide-based strategies are based on a continuous exposure of biocides at the film/water interface and consequently release into the environment if the antifouling efficacy is to be maintained. Such biocide-based solutions can therefore not be regarded as sustainable. Low adhesion coatings suffer from drawbacks of low durability and associated high material and maintenance costs. Therefore, there is currently no sustainable and cost-efficient solution available on the market today to minimize the costly and environmentally important problem of marine biofouling of marine vessels and constructions. Recently we have reported [2] a novel method to deal with hard fouler such as barnacles. This approach is not based on the exposure and release of biocide into the water. Instead it is based on the direct contact between biocide residing inside a coating and fouling organisms such as the barnacles. The technical challenge of the project is to find the optimal combination of biocide/coating matrix in order to completely eliminate the release of biocides. Expected impacts of the project are: lower fuel consumption, lower dispersion of biocide, reduced maintenance cost and longer life time (economical aspects) together with, reduced accumulation in the system of biocides and CO2 and reduced alien species transportation by ships


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.2.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2012

The HIPOW Project aims to develop a holistic regime for protection of critical infrastructures against threats from electromagnetic radiation. The holistic regime will include guidance regarding hardening measures and robust architectures, a suggested risk management process applicable on organizational level, input to standards and guidelines applicable for critical infrastructures on national and European level. The project will conduct real experiments and tests on components and systems that constitute parts of critical infrastructures and develop a prototype sensor that can detect radiation. Based on the experiments the project will recommend detection and protective measures.


Khunarsal P.,Chulalongkorn University | Lursinsap C.,Chulalongkorn University | Raicharoen T.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Environmental sounds are unstructured and similar to noise. However, the recognition of environmental sounds can benefit crime investigations, warning systems for elderly persons, and security systems. A few past research projects were developed for classifying the environmental sounds. In this paper, we proposed an environmental sound classification algorithm using spectrogram pattern matching along with neural network and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifiers. Unlike other techniques, our approach is based on the observation that local features are more important than global features. In addition, our technique can avoid the problem of filtering less informative and irrelevant frequencies in the classification step. Twenty types of sound from BBC and Sound Ideas databases, with each sound sample longer than 10 min, were tested with our algorithm. The spectrogram feature was compared with mel frequency delta cepstral coefficient (MFCC), linear prediction coefficient (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features. Two relevant factors concerning the accuracy of classification, window size and sampling rate, were also investigated to find the suitable value of each factor. We also investigated all combinations of these features. Using the k-NN classifier, the maximum accuracy of 94.98% occurred when the spectrogram, LPC, and MP features were combined. The experiments showed that the spectrogram feature with a feed-forward neural network can effectively classify 1-s audio clips with an accuracy of 85.66%. Furthermore, a longer duration can significantly increase the accuracy of classifying each sound clip to a certain limit without affecting cost. Using an audio clip duration of 6 s, the spectrogram feature with a feed-forward neural network provided the best classification accuracy, at least 90.57%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Croft A.M.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
BMJ clinical evidence | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION: Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite.METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).RESULTS: We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.


Sahoo B.N.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency | Balasubramanian K.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

We have developed a cost-effective method for the preparation of a porous superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/graphite composite with an induced nanocellular patterned surface. The microstructure of the surface was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the interaction between graphite and PVDF by Raman spectroscopy. The PVDF/graphite powder contained spherulites and had a roughened nanocellular surface with a water contact angle of 145° and roll-off angle of 5°. However, after coating the PVDF/graphite powder the nanocellular-like structure had a water contact angle of 153° with roll-off angle of 4°. The dry composite was self-cleaning by virtue of the interaction of a non-solvent (methanol) with a PVDF/graphite powder suspension in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). It was noticed that prolonged quenching altered the surface morphology of the dry composite. To illustrate the improvement of water repellency using PVDF composites, we also studied the mechanism of formation of the nanocellular structure with a view to its industrial application. In addition, in the case of PVDF porous materials, the inclusion of tiny amounts of graphite powder in the composite not only promoted crystallization of the PVDF, but also modified the surface texture and roughness to give superhydrophobicity. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Singh N.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Balasubramanian K.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Speciation and recovery of U(vi) ions from nuclear wastewater is a heavy challenge for various nuclear centers and research organizations. In this perspective, the present research work aims at using cost effective cellulose nanofibers for the reclamation of these incurable ions. Cellulose nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and functionalized with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) obtained from the camphor soot with noticeable metal sorption capacity. Sorption capability was ascertained by conducting systematic batch experiments for the optimization of parameters such as CNP dosage, pH selectivity, and dosage of nanofibers. The results indicated fast uptake of U(vi) ions, which was significantly observed at pH 6 with an adsorption percentage of 97 from mimicked solution within a period of 120 minutes. 85% of U(vi) was removed from an aqueous solution with an adsorbent dosage of 50 mg. The maximum adsorption capacity was noted to be 410 mg g-1 with 96% adsorption at varying concentration within a period of 60 min. Adsorptive uptake capacity of U(vi) ions was described with adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich). Pseudo first order and Elovich model defined the sorption kinetics with good correlation regression values (R2 = 0.99). The cellulose-camphor soot nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Further, thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous for the uptake of U(vi) ions. Reusability of the fibers was effectively performed with 0.1 M CH3COOH and HCOOH with contact duration of 30 min. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Sahoo B.N.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency | Kandasubramanian B.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Here, we have reviewed brief ideas of fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces and their important applications, which were discussed in the concluded national/international workshops and conferences organized by different industries and laboratories of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) and AERB (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board) in the last four years. A comprehensive overview of wettability, development of fabrication, techniques for artificial superhydrophobic surfaces and their natures and low surface energy materials along with surface texture is presented successfully. The purpose of this review is to assist future development to make robust superhydrophobic surfaces. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Sahoo B.N.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency | Kandasubramanian B.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

The present perspective presents a novel platform for the synthesis of catalyst free photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles derived from the combustion of camphor in a single step flame process. The soot particles were investigated using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, Raman, transmission emission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV and photoluminescent spectroscopy. The soot particles exhibited a diamond-like carbon nanostructure, with the presence of hydrophobic functional groups imparting superhydrophobic characteristics. The camphor soot particles revealed the presence of highly graphitized amorphous carbon, which was confirmed by the appearance of G, D1 D2, D3 and D4 bands in the Raman spectra. Photoluminescence of the soot particles was observed when soot particles were excited at λmax. A red shift was clearly noted in the UV spectrum of the soot in different solvents. The agglomeration of camphor soot particles was discussed by measuring the fractal dimensions (Df) of the particles. Combustion of soot particles occurs at 450 °C, approx. 100 °C lower than that of graphene. In-depth investigations suggest the use of these photoluminescent camphor soot particles for superhydrophobic coating applications. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Gould M.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
Military Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Knowledge of patients' preferences of military mental health care is required to inform service planning. The objective was to inform service planning by quantifying, and identifying predictors of, patient preferences for mental health care providers and location of facilities. Method: Sociodemographic and service characteristics and concerns about stigma were investigated for patients presenting to 4 U.K. Armed Forces Departments of Community Mental Health over a 2-months period (n = 163). Results: 5% preferred to be seen by a uniformed mental health clinician, 30% by a nonuniformed clinician, and 65% reported no preference. Gender and service were associated with care provider preference and service was associated with location preference. Conclusion: The Armed Forces need to explore and identify ways of accommodating their patients' preference, especially regarding the uniformed status of their care provider, to achieve good engagement and acceptability.


Yadav R.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency | Balasubramanian K.,Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Versatile maneuverable electrospinning process was exploited to fabricate intertwined heterostructure polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with average diameter of 141.4 nm by incorporating essential oil Syzygium aromaticum for antibacterial drug delivery systems. We have demonstrated the formation of seamless heterostructure of PAN/Syzygium aromaticum nanocomposites by incorporating 0.1% electrolyte solution, which not only achieved inhibition zone of 1.8-2.8 cm against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria but also exhibited 100% cell viability of NIH/3T3 cell lines. Electrospun fibers were observed to be flexible and composed of continuous, cylindrical and randomly oriented fibers. FT-IR peak at 3398 cm-1 reveals the ultra wettabililty nature of nanocomposite which was confirmed by the contact angle measurement. Further, the Korsmeyer-Peppas model was explored to study the mechanism and kinetics of the antibacterial drug release system. Overall result suggests that electrospinning can be employed as a novel, facile route for the large scale fabrication of nanoscale PAN heterostructure hydrophilic composite for broad range of biomedical applications. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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