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Jayashankar B.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Mishra K.P.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Kumar M.S.Y.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Udayasankar K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2012

In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of supercritical CO 2 extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SCE) on mouse alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S), human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in-vitro and in-vivo. Treatment of MH-S cells with SCE (0.5-100 μg/ml) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production. It also inhibited the release of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which was further confirmed by suppression of LPS induced TNF-α in hPBMCs by ELISPOT assay. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that SCE decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in MH-S cells. Furthermore, SCE treatment also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation in nucleus induced by LPS in MH-S cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators by SCE (100 μg/ml), we further studied the effect of SCE on LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). It was observed that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated MH-S cells was significantly inhibited by SCE, which was further proven by suppression of LPS induced CD40 expression. The in-vivo model of AIA mice also showed a significant reduction in the inflammation of paw edema. These data collectively suggest that SCE suppressed the LPS-induced production of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α and expression of CD40, iNOS and COX-2 proteins by inhibiting NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Hence, the SCE has potent anti-inflammatory activity and might be useful in chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Rajendran R.,PSG College of Technology | Radhai R.,PSG College of Technology | Kotresh T.M.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Csiszar E.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jha V.N.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory
Defence Science Journal | Year: 2012

Parajumping and sky diving in Armed Forces are used for rapid and strategic troop's deployments. In the combat free fall (CFF), the troops are paradropped from high altitudes in excess of 30,000 ft above mean sea level (AMSL) when they glide to a great distance, often within the enemy lines. Physiology of parajumping necessitates supplemental oxygen above 15,000 ft AMSL. Possibility of serious hypoxia and decompression sickness mandate the usage of supplemental oxygen through dedicated equipment. Other considerations such as effects of hypoxia on tissue oxygenation, physical and mental performance, neuronal functions, night vision, and prevailing anxiety factors, etc. also assume significance. Factors like intermittent hypoxic exposures, free fall, effects of posture during fall, and possible microgravity become mitigating factors. Owing to limited oxygen supply being carried by the paratroopers, using dilution method in providing the breathing gas too assumes importance at times as a trade-off between requirements and supply. This paper reviews the literatures to extent possible and recommends certain concepts for an optimal oxygen usage during the high altitude parajumps. © 2012, DESIDOC.

Bhargavi R.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Kadirvelu K.,Bharathiar University | Kumar N.S.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

The objective of this work is to evaluate spherical carbon and modified spherical carbon for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution in static and dynamic studies under various conditions. It explores mainly two adsorbents, that is, activated spherical carbon (ASC) and modified activated spherical carbon (SSC). SEM characterization of both the adsorbents showed a clear change in the physical and chemical properties of the modified adsorbent from its precursor activated carbon. Both the adsorbents are subjected to static mode adsorption studies and after a comparison based on isotherm analysis; more efficient adsorbent is screened for column mode adsorption studies. The phenol removal increased for modified carbon. The aim of carrying out column mode studies will aid in ascertaining the practical applicability of the adsorbent in the real system and therefore, to assess the effect of various process variables, viz., bed height of the adsorbent, flow rate and initial concentration of the adsorbate on breakthrough time and adsorption capacity. The column studies generated data were modeled using the empirical relationship based on Bohart-Adams model. At the end, the option of regenerating the adsorbent was also explored using sodium hydroxide with the aim of minimize the hazardous generated and also to reuse the adsorbent material for many cycles without affecting original properties. Adsorbent regeneration efficiency of 72% was achieved. This investigation reveals that the material used as an adsorbent is very effective with high adsorption capacities and also possible to use in the real contaminated system. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Selvakumar D.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Rajeshkumar P.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Dharmaraj N.,Bharathiar University | Kumar N.S.,Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

Gas sensors were fabricated using nanostructured indium oxide (In2O3) and platinum doped indium oxide (Pt-In2O3) prepared by surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. The optimum working temperature of the sensors was around 165 °C, which is lower than the literature reports. The sensor fabricated using Pt-In2O3 exhibited higher response as compared to undopedIn2O3.Their gas sensing properties investigated with NO2 gaswith2.5 and 5 ppmrevealed that the sensors showed a concentration dependent electrical resistance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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