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Yogendra Kumar M.S.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Tirpude R.J.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Maheshwari D.T.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Bansal A.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Misra K.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Phenolic rich fraction (PRF) from Seabuckthorn leaves was prepared by sequential fractionation. Total phenolic content of PRF estimated as gallic acid equivalent was found to be 319.33 ± 7.02 mg/g of PRF. Its major constituents gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, were found in the range of 1.551-196.89 mg/g of PRF as determined by RP-HPLC. Antioxidant activity of PRF evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Reducing power of PRF increased with increasing amount of PRF; the equation of reducing power (y) and amount of PRF (x) was y = 8.004x (r2 = 0.99), indicating that reducing ability correlated well with amount of PRF. Antibacterial activity of PRF, tested against certain medically important bacterial species showed growth inhibiting effect against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, PRF has potent antioxidant and broad spectrum antibacterial properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gopalakrishnan S.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Sen S.,Armed Forces Medical College | Adhikari J.S.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | Chugh P.K.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Hormones | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) results from an interaction of exogenous and endogenous factors in a genetically predisposed individual. AITD is being increasingly reported among the Indian population. Lymphocyte subsets and levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) were studied in the peripheral blood of patients with AITD. DESIGN: Subjects diagnosed with either hyperthyroidism due to Graves' Disease (GD) or with primary hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) were consecutively recruited. Euthyroid controls were also recruited for comparison. Lymphocyte subsets (CD4 and CD8 counts, CD4/CD8 ratio) were evaluated by flow cytometry and IL-5 levels were determined by the sandwich ELISA method. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects with GD, 16 subjects with HT and 10 controls were studied. CD4/CD8 ratios were found to be significantly lower only in subjects with HT compared to controls. Serum IL-5 values were significantly higher in both GD and HT in comparison to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The study found increased levels of IL-5 and reduction in ratios of CD4/CD8 lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with HT, but only IL-5 was increased in GD. High levels of IL-5 could have resulted in the high titres of antithyroid antibodies and may therefore be considered to play a more significant role than peripheral lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of AITD in the Indian population.

Subhasree R.S.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Bhakyaraj R.,Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology | Dinesh Babu P.,Pondicherry University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

The efficiency of brown rice and germinated brown rice as a substrate for probiotic food was investigated. Lactobacillus isolated from goat milk was used for fermenting the rice medium. Brown rice (BR) obtained by dehulling the paddy, was germinated for 48 h. The dried powders of BR and Germinated BR (GBR) were compared for the growth of Lactobacillus sp. and nutritive evaluation such as carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber and ash. The studies showed that GBR has increased protein and fiber content as compared to BR. Thus, we propose the use of GBR as an alternative substrate in making probiotic food formulations.

Chaudhry M.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Chaudhry M.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Febin Prabhu Dass J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Selvakumar D.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory | Kumar N.S.,Defence Bio Engineering and Electromedical Laboratory
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Pesticides are widely used round the globe for a plethora of applications that vastly includes agricultural fields and commercial gardens. Despite their wide use that aid increase in crop yield, they have ill-effects on environment and non-target organisms. Organophosphates (OP) are an important class of pesticides, which cause irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Irreversible inhibition of AChE may lead to severe pathological conditions such as muscular paralysis, bronchial constriction and even death by asphyxiation. An in-silico approach was employed to study the interaction of AChE with four commonly used OP pesticides namely, methyl parathion, dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos. AutoDock4.2 and iGEMDOCK and SwissDock are opensource docking tools which were used to form the AChE-OP complex. Further these complexes were explored on their protein-ligand binding affinity along with the mechanism of binding. Based on the results, It was found that chlorpyrifos has the best binding affinity with AChE as compared to the other pesticides. These observation would surely be helpful in development of precautionary antidotes for the people who have direct contact with these poisonous pesticides. In addition, this information may be utilized in developing non-toxic therapeutic leads from the best binding pesticides, for Alzheimer's diseases, where AChE is considered as a potential drug target.

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