Breeze J.,Royal Center for Defence Medicine |
Horsfall I.,Defence Academy of the United Kingdom |
Hepper A.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory |
Clasper J.,Royal Center for Defence Medicine
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011
Recent international papers have suggested an urgent need for new methods of protecting the face, neck, and eyes in battle. We made a systematic analysis to identify all papers that reported the incidence and mortality of combat wounds to the face, eyes, or neck in the 21st century, and any papers that described methods of protecting the face, neck, or eyes. Neck wounds were found in 2-11% of injuries in battle, and associated with high mortality, but no new methods of protecting the neck were identified. Facial wounds were found in 6-30% of injuries in battle, but despite the psychological effects of this type of injury only one paper suggested methods for protection. If soldiers wore existing eye protection they potentially reduced the mean incidence of eye injuries in combat from the 4.5% found in this analysis to 0.5%. Given the need to balance protection with the functional requirements of the individual soldier, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Military surgeons are well placed to work with material scientists and biomechanical engineers to suggest modifications to the design of both personal and vehicle-mounted protection. Further research needs is needed to find out how effective current methods of protecting the neck are, and to develop innovative methods of protecting the vulnerable regions of the neck and face. Crown Copyright © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Birchenall R.P.,Defence Academy of the United Kingdom |
Richardson M.A.,Defence Academy of the United Kingdon |
Brian B.,Chemring Countermeasures Ltd |
Roy W.,Chemring Countermeasures Ltd
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2010
The global proliferation of shoulder launched IR Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADS) has resulted in the existence of a serious threat to both civilian and military aircraft from terrorist attack. Some of the older generations of ManPADS can be defeated with modern countermeasures but even the most sophisticated protection still has vulnerabilities to the latest family of ManPADS. This paper describes the work undertaken by the authors to model a second generation ManPAD, based on the Russian SA-14, and assess the vulnerabilities of aircraft both with and without flare countermeasures from these systems. The conclusions are the results of over 11,000 simulated firings against targets of varying aspects, velocities and altitudes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zagorecki A.,Defence Academy of the United Kingdom |
Zagorecki A.,Cranfield University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015
In recent years we have experienced unprecedented increase of use of sensors in many industrial applications. Examples of such are Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for vehicles, so-called intelligent buildings, or instrumentation on machinery in order to monitor performance, detect faults and gain insights in operational aspects. Modern sensors are capable of not only generating large volumes of data but as well transmitting that data through network and storing it for further analysis. Unfortunately, that collected data requires further analysis in order to provide useful information to the decision makers who want to reduce costs, improve safety, etc. Such analysis proved to be a challenge, as there are no generic methodologies that allow for automating data analysis and in practice costs required to analyze data are prohibitively high for many practical applications. This paper is a step in a direction of developing generic methods for sensor data analysis – it describes an application of a generic method that can be applied to arbitrary set of multivariate time series data in order to perform classification or regression tasks. The presented application relates to prediction of methane concentrations in coal mines based on time series data from various sensors. The method was tested within the framework of IJCRS’15 data mining competition and resulted in the winning model outperforming other solutions. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
Makers of fireworks and flares have long believed that the beautiful red color in their explosions could be attained only with chlorine-based compounds. But after these ingredients combust, they can transform into cancer-causing chemicals that then fall to the Earth. Now, new chlorine-free pyrotechnics could pave the way for a generation of red flares and fireworks that are better for the environment and for people’s health, says Jesse J. Sabatini at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, in Maryland. Sabatini developed the red pyrotechnics with Ernst-Christian Koch at consulting firm Lutradyn, in Kaiserslautern, Germany (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201505829). Currently, red fireworks get their hue primarily from strontium monochloride, which is produced by burning strontium compounds with polyvinyl chloride and a variety of other pyrotechnic ingredients. Unfortunately, the combustion of these mixtures produces a variety of polychlorinated aromatic chemicals, including some potent carcinogens. To make the more environmentally friendly fireworks, the researchers focused on strontium monohydroxide, a compound that scientists had long believed was only a minor contributor to the red color of pyrotechnics. According to Koch, for years, scientists hadn’t realized that strontium monohydroxide also strongly flared red because its sister product, strontium oxide, produces an orange-red color that fireworks-makers try to avoid. Sabatini, Koch, and coworkers formulated the new explosive by replacing polyvinyl chloride on the old ingredient list with either hexamine, a preservative in citrus washing solutions, or 5-amino-1H-tetrazole, an airbag propellant. The replacement successfully removes chlorine and helps produce strontium monohydroxide when the overall concoction is ignited, producing bright red fireworks. As an added bonus, the new formulation also avoids the production of unwanted orangey strontium oxide, Koch says. “It’s very challenging to go from something that works on the bench to something that works on a large-scale,” comments David E. Chavez, a chemist at Los Alamos National Laboratory who was not involved in the research. But this new combustible formulation might translate to large-scale fireworks displays readily, he says. Because hexamine and 5-amino-1H-tetrazole are widely used in the chemical industry, the new formulation could easily be adopted by pyrotechnic producers. The potential benefit is not just to those putting on Fourth of July and New Year’s Eve fireworks displays, Chavez adds. The military is also a large consumer of red flares, particularly for training purposes. “Training areas get fallout [from flares] over and over again,” he says. So much so, “that it can be an issue for environmental clean-up,” Chavez adds. Next up, researchers may want to focus on blue and green fireworks, many of which also employ chlorine in their formulations. One can hope that this work will encourage others to formulate more environmentally friendly fireworks of other colors with similar strategies, says Nigel Davies, a retired pyrotechnics instructor at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom.
Cho H.,Hanwha Corporation |
Ryoo C.-K.,Inha University |
Tsourdos A.,Cranfield University |
Tsourdos A.,Defence Academy of the United Kingdom |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2014
A new impact angle control optimal guidance law was developed for missiles with arbitrary velocity profiles against maneuvering targets. The guidance law development is based on the linearization of kinematics around the zero-effort collision triangle, which has been newly introduced for impact angle control problems and behaves like an equilibrium point in the engagement dynamic system. A nonlinear planar engagement scenario has been considered to show the properties of the proposed optimal guidance scheme. All variables are given in an inertial coordinate frame. The impact time estimates are fairly good, showing very small errors from the beginning regarded as the true optimal trajectories and control histories. The missile trajectories and the guidance command histories do not have noticeable differences and the guidance commands are slightly bigger and tend to keep growing in the latest stage of the engagement.