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McCarthy J.,Eaton Corporation | Yue Y.,John Deere and Co | Mahakul B.,John Deere and Co | Gui X.,John Deere and Co | And 3 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2011

The nonroad Final Tier 4 US EPA emission standards require 88% reduction in NOx emission from the Interim Tier 4 standards. It is necessary to utilize aftertreatment technologies to achieve the required NOx reduction. The development of a fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT) and optional selective catalytic reactor (SCR) on a John Deere 4045 nonroad engine is described in this paper. The paper discusses aftertreatment system performance, catalyst formulations and system controls of a fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, LNT and SCR system designed to meet the nonroad Final Tier 4 emission standards. The 4045 John Deere engine was calibrated and integrated with the aftertreatment system. The system performance was characterized in an engine dynamometer performance test cell, durability test cell and on a vehicle. The catalyst performance was evaluated using aged catalysts and a detailed description of the LNT, DPF and SCR catalysts is provided. Test results show that the system performance met Final Tier 4 emission standards under a range of test conditions including limited vehicle operation. System performance was characterized under the nonroad transient cycle (NRTC), ramped eight-mode cycle, steady state modal points and not-to-exceed regulations. LNT regeneration, LNT desulfation and DPF regeneration were demonstrated in these test cycles while maintaining repeatable and consistent aftertreatment temperature control. The LNT system regeneration fuel consumption ranged between 1.4% to 3.1%. The system consistently demonstrated 85% NOx reduction in a performance and durability test cell, and on a vehicle. The downstream SCR catalyst can be removed as an option for tighter vehicle packages while still meeting Final Tier 4 emission standards. © 2011 SAE International.


Taube A.,John Deere and Co. | Cappel M.,Exact Metrology | Boens V.,John Deere and Co.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.


French J.J.,LeTourneau University | Ressler C.P.,LeTourneau University | Weigelt J.J.,John Deere and Company
ASME 2013 7th Int. Conf. on Energy Sustainability Collocated with the ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conf. and the ASME 2013 11th Int. Conf. on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, ES 2013 | Year: 2013

Previous work at the institution has successfully shown that a novel VAWT design can be employed to provide electrical power to remote rural villages in a cost effective manner. The VAWT's design can effectively utilize the non-laminar, low level winds and survive the increased turbulence present at remote and non-optimal installation locations. Previous efforts have improved the overall aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine and scaled these designs from a 100W to a 1kW scaled turbine. In order to remain a viable and affordable solution for use worldwide by truly rural users, these turbines need to have low manufacturing cost and low maintenance costs. This paper presents the work done by the authors to analyze the main cost contributors, manufacturing methods, techniques, and tooling used to improve productivity in the manufacturing process. Design improvements and construction materials were analyzed to reduce overall weight which leads to cost reduction and overall improvements in manufacturability. The specific improvements explored by the authors include redesigning the arms of the turbine to improve aerodynamic efficiency of the turbine, reducing construction materials to minimum allowable values, and designing manufacturing tooling which will allow for rapid production of large quantities of the turbine. Results are presented from over 4000 hours of in-situ testing of the turbine showing that the manufacturing improvements reduced construction time to 25% of the original design and reduced weight by 25% while maintaining full functionality and high-wind survivability. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Harris T.,John Deere and Co. | Kozlov A.,John Deere and Co. | Ayyappan P.,John Deere Power Systems | Combs J.,Deere & Company
SAE 2011 World Congress and Exhibition | Year: 2011

Diesel particulate filters with a quantity of ash corresponding to the service interval (4500 hours) are needed to verify that soot loading model predictions remain accurate as ash accumulates in the DPF. Initially, long-term engine tests carried out for the purpose of assessing engine and aftertreatment system durability provided ash-loaded DPFs for model verification. However, these DPFs were found to contain less ash than expected based on lube oil consumption, and the ash was distributed uniformly along the length of the inlet channels, as opposed to being in the form of a plug at the outlet end of those channels. Thus, a means of producing DPFs with higher quantities of ash, distributed primarily as plugs, was required. An engine test protocol was developed for this purpose; it included the following: 1) controlled dosing of lube oil into the fuel feeding the engine, 2) formation of a soot cake within the DPF, and 3) periodic active regenerations to eliminate the soot cake. This combination of conditions provided high ash capture efficiency, accurate targeting of the ash quantity, and plug-type or wall-type ash distributions. © 2011 SAE International.


Ngan E.,Eaton Corporation | Wetzel P.,Eaton Corporation | McCarthy Jr. J.,Eaton Corporation | Yue Y.,John Deere and Co | Mahakul B.,John Deere and Co
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are required for meeting Final Tier 4 emission regulations. This paper addresses an aftertreatment system designed to meet the Final Tier 4 emission standards for nonroad vehicle markets. The aftertreatment system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an optional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Aftertreatment system performance, both with and without the SCR, was characterized in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 4.5 liter, pre-production diesel engine. The engine out NOx nominally ranged between 1.6 and 2.0 g/kW-hr while all operating modes ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 g/kW-hr. The engine out particulate matter was calibrated to approximately 0.1 g/kW-hr for various power ratings. Three engine power ratings of 104 kW, 85 kW and 78 kW were evaluated. Test results on aged catalysts show that the system performance met Final Tier 4 emission standards having NOx levels below 0.4 g/kW-hr under a range of test conditions that were reflective of actual vehicle operation. Aftertreatment performance was characterized under multiple testing conditions including the nonroad transient cycle (NRTC), ramped 8-mode cycle and a variety of steady state operating points to ensure all not-to-exceed (NTE) regulations were met. LNT regeneration, LNT desulfation and DPF regeneration were demonstrated in these test cycles while maintaining repeatable and consistent aftertreatment temperature control. Final Tier 4 emission standards were met with low fuel usages for LNT regeneration ranging between 1.4 and 3.1%. The aftertreatment system reduced NOx by 89% on the NRTC and 87% on the ramped 8-mode cycle. Likewise, a system without the SCR catalyst yielded similar results of 88% NOx reduction on the NRTC and 86% on the ramped 8-mode cycle. Both system configurations met Final Tier 4 emission levels. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.

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