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Bhatnagar S.,Translational Health Science and Technology Institute | Wadhwa N.,Translational Health Science and Technology Institute | Aneja S.,Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital | Lodha R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Serious bacterial infections are a major cause of death in early infancy in developing countries. Inexpensive and accessible interventions that can add to the eff ect of standard antibiotic treatment could reduce infant mortality. We measured the eff ect of zinc as an adjunct to antibiotics in infants with probable serious bacterial infection. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled infants aged 7-120 days with probable serious bacterial infection at three hospitals in New Delhi, India, between July 6, 2005, and Dec 3, 2008. With computer-generated sequences, we randomly assigned infants in permuted blocks of six, stratifi ed by whether patients were underweight or had diarrhoea at enrolment, to receive either 10 mg of zinc or placebo orally every day in addition to standard antibiotic treatment. The primary outcome was treatment failure, which was defi ned as a need to change antibiotics within 7 days of randomisation, or a need for intensive care, or death at any time within 21 days. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. All analyses were done by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00347386. Findings 352 infants were randomly assigned to receive zinc and 348 to placebo. 332 given zinc and 323 given placebo could be assessed for treatment failure. Signifi cantly fewer treatment failures occurred in the zinc group (34 [10%]) than in the placebo group (55 [17%]; relative risk reduction 40%, 95% CI 10-60, p=0•0113; absolute risk reduction 6•8%, 1•5-12•0, p=0•0111). Treatment of 15 (95% CI eight to 67) infants with zinc would prevent one treatment failure. Ten infants receiving zinc died compared with 17 given placebo (relative risk 0•57, 0•27-1•23, p=0•15). Interpretation Zinc could be given as adjunct treatment to reduce the risk of treatment failure in infants aged 7-120 days with probable serious bacterial infection. Funding Department of Biotechnology, Government of India; the European Commission; the Meltzer Foundation; and the Research Council of Norway.

Sood N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Nigam J.S.,Saraswathi Institute of Medical science
Pathology Research International | Year: 2014

Purpose. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the loss of expression of ER, PR, and Her2neu expressions. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 among triple-negative breast cancer cases and to correlate the expression of the basal markers with the clinicopathological prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods. Thirty-six female patients with TNBC based on ER, PR, and the HER2neu negativities were studied by immunohistochemistry for EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 expression. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software version 20. Results. The mean and median ages were 45.18 years and 46.70 years, respectively. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS was the predominant histopathological type (29/36 [80.6%]). The commonest histological grade was grade 2 (17/36 [47.2%]). Tumour necrosis was seen in 16/36 (44.4%) patients. Infiltrative margins were shown in 69.44% (25/36) cases. Ki-67 was positive in 80.56% (29/36) cases, 61.11% (22/36) were CK5-positive, and 86.11% (31/36) were EGFR-positive. The only significant positive association observed was between the CK5 and histological grade (P<0.05). Conclusion. CK5 shows a statistically significantly correlation with TNBC histological grade. The majority of the specimens show EGFR expression. Therefore TNBCs could potentially benefit from EGFR-targeted therapeutic strategies. © 2014 Neelam Sood and Jitendra Singh Nigam.

Thakur B.,SGRRIM | Mehrotra R.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Nigam J.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Pathology Research International | Year: 2013

Objective. To study the correlation of cytomorphological features in fine needle aspiration smears from patients suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), auramine-rhodamine staining (ARS), and autofluorescence (AF). Methods. A total of 145 lymph nodes were aspirated, 3 air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and auramine-rhodamine stains, and 1 smear was wet fixed for Papanicolaou staining. Needle washes were incubated in Lowenstein-Jensen medium for culture. Papanicolaou and auramine-rhodamine stained smears were examined under fluorescent microscope using a blue excitation filter (450-480 nm). Results. Ninety aspirates were reported on cytomorphology as suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Smear positivity for Mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen method was 26.67% (24/90), while positivity increased to 34.44% (31/90) by auramine-rhodamine and 42.22% (38/90) on autofluorescence. Culture was positive in 27.78% (25/90) aspirates. Using culture as the reference method, the statistical values of ZN, ARS, and AF were as follows: sensitivity 80.0%, 88.0%, 96.0%; specificity 93.85%, 86.15%, 78.46%; positive predictive values 83.33%, 70.97%, 63.16%; and negative predictive values 92.42%, 94.92%, 98.08%, respectively. Conclusion. There is a definite advantage of autofluorescence over Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine which is to detect Mycobacteria, being more sensitive as well as an inexpensive technique. Autofluorescence can be a useful addition to routine cytology for early diagnosis and effective treatment. © 2013 Brijesh Thakur et al.

Sekar P.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Bharti J.N.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Nigam J.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Sharma A.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Soni P.B.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background. Study of tumor molecular characteristics is necessary to understand both the risk of breast cancer recurrence and the response to therapy. Aims. To evaluate p53, HoxD10, and E-cadherin status in breast cancer and to correlate with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Material and Methods. The study was conducted in 60 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma NOS with 20 cases belonging to each grade and evaluation of p53 was done by IHC and that of HoxD10 and E Cadherin status by PCR and correlation was done with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Result. p53 expression was seen in 71.67% (43/60) of the tumors. HoxD10 gene was downregulated in 46.67% (28/60) of the tumors. p53 overexpression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels showed statistically significant association higher histological grade of the tumor (P < 0.05). CDH1 gene mutation was seen in 60% (15/25) of the tumors. No significant association was found between p53 expression, HoxD10 gene, CDH1 gene mutation, and other prognostic factors. Conclusion. p53 over expression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels were found to be significantly associated with higher grade tumours. This suggests that p53 and HoxD10 gene play an important tumor suppressor role and the loss of which results in breast cancer progression. © 2014 Preethi Sekar et al.

Goswami U.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Babbar S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Tiwari S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2015

Background and Aims: General anaesthesia (GA) may cause post-operative impairment of cognition and memory. This is of importance where time to discharge after anaesthesia is short as after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was conducted to compare the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on cognitive function in the post-operative period. Methods: After approval of the Ethical Committee, 80 female patients posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be performed under GA were randomly divided into two groups. Propofol was used in Group P and sevoflurane in Group S. Data analysis was done with California verbal learning test (CVLT), digit span test (DST), Rivermead behavioural memory test (RBMT), mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, and semantic memory tests. Aldrete recovery scoring system and visual analogue scale for pain were assessed post-operatively. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in demographic and haemodynamic data. Cognition and explicit memory were affected more in the propofol group in the immediate post-operative period. With majority of tests, such as semantic memory test, MMSE score, DST and RBMT, the difference was insignificant at 2 and 4 h post-operatively. But CVLT values were found to be statistically significant between groups even at 4 h. Conclusion: Propofol was associated with significant impact on cognitive functions in comparison to sevoflurane in the immediate post-operative period. Sevoflurane anaesthesia might be a better option in day care surgeries. © 2015, Indian Society of Anaesthetists. All rights reserved.

Agarwal S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Aggarwal R.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Gupta P.,Medicity
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background: We compared the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to a 30 ml solution of 0.325% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block along with the duration of analgesia were the primary endpoints. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients posted for upper limb surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the control group S and the study group SD. In group S (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; and in group SD (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml (100 μg) dexmedetomidine were given for supraclavicular brachial plexus block using the peripheral nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were assessed along with the duration of analgesia, sedation, and adverse effects, if any. Hemodynamic parameters, like heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) were also monitored. Results: Demographic data and surgical characteristics were comparable in both the groups. The onset times for sensory and motor blocks were significantly shorter in SD than S group (P < 0.001), while the duration of blocks was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in SD group. Except for the initial recordings (at 0, 5, 10, and 15 min), heart rate levels in group SD were significantly lower (P < 0.001). SBP and DBP levels in SD group at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min were significantly lower than in S group (P < 0.001). In fact, when the percentage changes in HR/SBP/DBP were compared from 0-5/0-10/0-15/0-30/0-45/0-60/0-90/0-120 min in SD with S group, they came out to be highly significant (P < 0.001) in group SD. The duration of analgesia (DOA) was significantly longer in SD group than S group (P < 0.001). Except that, bradycardia was observed in one patient in the group SD, no other adverse effects were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine added as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block significantly shortens the onset time and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blocks and duration of analgesia. Patients in group SD were adequately sedated (modified Ramsay Sedation Score, RSS = 2/6 or 3/6) with no adverse effects except bradycardia in one patient of group SD.

Goswami U.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Sarangi S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Gupta S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Babbar S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2013

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and anemia thereafter can be a life threatening condition in parturients undergoing lower segment cesarean section (LSCS), especially when anemia is present. Aim: The objective of this study was to assess two doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intra operative blood loss and incidence of PPH, in terms of both efficacy and safety profiles, when used prophylactically. Methods: A monocenter prospective case control double blind randomized study was carried out on a consecutive series of 90 anemic patients undergoing LSCS, with hemoglobin between 7-10 g percent. Three random groups were formed. Group T1 (n=30) received 10mg/kg TXA in 20 ml of 5% dextrose intravenously, while T2 group (n=30) received 15mg/kg. Group C (n=30) received a placebo. Drug was administered prophylactically 20 min before skin incision. Blood loss was measured from placental delivery up to 24 hours by method of weight and volume. Staistical Analysis: To compare quantitative data between two groups, t-test, and for more than two groups ANOVA was used. To compare the mean for non- parametric data between two groups Mann - Whitney test was used, while in case of more than two groups Kruskal - Wallis test was employed. Probability (p) value was considered significant when it was 0.05 or less. Results: TXA significantly reduced blood loss in both the study groups. Mean total blood loss was 527.17±88.666 ml, 376.83±31.961ml and 261.17±56.777 ml in group C, T1, and T2 respectively. While reduction of blood loss in T1 group compared to control group was 146.34±56.32ml, it was 262±31.51ml in T2 group. Difference between T1 and T2 was 115.66±24.81ml, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Postoperative blood loss was insignificant in all three groups. Pre- and post-operative hemoglobin levels differed significantly when compared to control group. Blood transfusion was needed in two patients in the control group, whereas no patient in groups T1 and T2 needed transfusion (P=0.02). No significant adverse effect was seen in all the three groups. Conclusion: Hence, TXA was found to be effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion in anemic parturients undergoing LSCS. 15mg/kg dose of TXA was more efficacious than the 10mg/kg dose and without any undue increase in adverse events. Postpartum anemia is a public health problem worldwide and TXA could prove to be a very useful drug to prevent blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing LSCS, especially in the anemic subgroup.

Kumar P.,Manipal University India | Sait S.F.,Manipal University India | Sharma A.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Kumar M.,Manipal University India
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2011

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication of assisted reproduction technology. The syndrome is characterized by cystic enlargement of the ovaries and a fluid shift from the intravascular to the third space due to increased capillary permeability and ovarian neoangiogenesis. Its occurrence is dependent on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). β-hCG and its analogs, estrogen, estradiol, prolactin, histamine and prostaglandins have all been implicated in OHSS but now it is increasingly better understood that the vasoactivesubstances such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-, endothelin-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the ovaries have been implicated in increasing vascular permeability. Enlargement of the ovaries causes abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Leakage of fluid from follicles, increased capillary permeability leading to third spacing (due to the release of vasoactive substances), or frank rupture of follicles can all cause ascites. Due to leakage of fluid through the impaired blood vessels both within and outside the ovary there is massive fluid-shift from the intra-vescular bed to the third compartment results in intravascular hypovolemia with concomitant development of edema, ascites, hydrothorax and/or hydropericardium. Low-dose gonadotrophin protocols have been implemented to reduce the risks of fertility treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Prophylactic albumin administration may interrupt the development of OHSS by increasing the plasma oncotic pressure and binding mediators of ovarian origin. OHSS is significantly lower in an antagonist protocol than in an agonist protocol. Cabergoline inhibits partially the VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation levels and associated vascular permeability without affecting luteal angiogenesis reduces the ′early′ (within the first 9 days after hCG) onset of OHSS. To prevent thrombosis, subcutaneous heparin 5000-7500 U/d is begun on the first day of admission. These patients need a hospital ward where the clinical picture is well understood and the personnel have expertise in its treatment and follow-up. Admission to an intensive care unit is necessary when critical OHSS develops.

Sood N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Sehrawat N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Malaysian Journal of Pathology | Year: 2016

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a fast growing, malignant tumour arising from immature mesenchymal cells, committed to skeletal muscle differentiation. It is more often seen in the paediatric population and constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies and less than 3% of all soft tissue tumours. RMS of the paranasal sinuses constitutes 10-15% of adult head and neck RMS, ethmoidal and maxillary sinuses being the most common. We report a 56-year-oldman presenting with left nasal obstruction, epistaxis on and off and left cheek swelling. Nasal endoscopy revealed a reddish friable mass, bleeding on touch, in the left nasal cavity. CECT scan showed a heterogeneous growth in the left maxillary sinus eroding the medial orbital wall and lateral nasal wall. FNAC of the left cheek swelling yielded highly cellular smears showing predominantly singly scattered round to ovoid neoplastic cells with scanty cytoplasm and indistinct nucleoli. Few of the cells had eccentric nuclei with moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Attempted pseudorossette formation was seen. An impression of round cell tumour was given. A diagnosis of an adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma was made on histopathological examination of the nasal biopsy, supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) showing strong myogenin positivity, focal positivity for PAX8 and negativity for CK, LCA, S-100 and CD99. Parameningeal RMS is rare in adults especially the elderly. However, it needs to be considered whenever a poorly-differentiated neoplasm is seen in this age and IHC is a useful aid. © 2016, Malaysian Society of Pathologists. All rights reserved.

Nigam J.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Yadav P.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Sood N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
South Asian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8%) is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%), gallbladder (7.2%), ovary (7.1%), and uterus (3.3%). Aims and Objectives: A retrospective audit of breast cancer patients presenting at a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 cases diagnosed as carcinoma breast on histopathology from year 2004 to 2011 were retrieved and studied retrospectively with regards to demographic profile and their histological features with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2neu status. Results: The median age of presentation was 49 years of age. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, not otherwise specified (NOS)) was the commonest histopathological variant (81.40%) followed by medullary carcinoma (10.36%) and mucinous carcinoma (2.74%). Triple negative were found to be the commonest group comprising 39.4% of all the cases followed by ER and PR both positive. Pathological tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging showed most common group was T2N0M 0 (19.5%) followed by T2N1M0(17.1%) and T2N2M0(14%). Conclusion: The incidence of breast cancer in the India and include a higher incidence of ER, PR, and Her2neu negative disease in west Delhi. © 2014 South Asian Journal of Cancer. All Rights Reserved.

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