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Sood N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Nigam J.S.,Saraswathi Institute of Medical science
Pathology Research International | Year: 2014

Purpose. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the loss of expression of ER, PR, and Her2neu expressions. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 among triple-negative breast cancer cases and to correlate the expression of the basal markers with the clinicopathological prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods. Thirty-six female patients with TNBC based on ER, PR, and the HER2neu negativities were studied by immunohistochemistry for EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 expression. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software version 20. Results. The mean and median ages were 45.18 years and 46.70 years, respectively. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS was the predominant histopathological type (29/36 [80.6%]). The commonest histological grade was grade 2 (17/36 [47.2%]). Tumour necrosis was seen in 16/36 (44.4%) patients. Infiltrative margins were shown in 69.44% (25/36) cases. Ki-67 was positive in 80.56% (29/36) cases, 61.11% (22/36) were CK5-positive, and 86.11% (31/36) were EGFR-positive. The only significant positive association observed was between the CK5 and histological grade (P<0.05). Conclusion. CK5 shows a statistically significantly correlation with TNBC histological grade. The majority of the specimens show EGFR expression. Therefore TNBCs could potentially benefit from EGFR-targeted therapeutic strategies. © 2014 Neelam Sood and Jitendra Singh Nigam.

Thakur B.,SGRRIM | Mehrotra R.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Nigam J.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Pathology Research International | Year: 2013

Objective. To study the correlation of cytomorphological features in fine needle aspiration smears from patients suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), auramine-rhodamine staining (ARS), and autofluorescence (AF). Methods. A total of 145 lymph nodes were aspirated, 3 air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and auramine-rhodamine stains, and 1 smear was wet fixed for Papanicolaou staining. Needle washes were incubated in Lowenstein-Jensen medium for culture. Papanicolaou and auramine-rhodamine stained smears were examined under fluorescent microscope using a blue excitation filter (450-480 nm). Results. Ninety aspirates were reported on cytomorphology as suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Smear positivity for Mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen method was 26.67% (24/90), while positivity increased to 34.44% (31/90) by auramine-rhodamine and 42.22% (38/90) on autofluorescence. Culture was positive in 27.78% (25/90) aspirates. Using culture as the reference method, the statistical values of ZN, ARS, and AF were as follows: sensitivity 80.0%, 88.0%, 96.0%; specificity 93.85%, 86.15%, 78.46%; positive predictive values 83.33%, 70.97%, 63.16%; and negative predictive values 92.42%, 94.92%, 98.08%, respectively. Conclusion. There is a definite advantage of autofluorescence over Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine which is to detect Mycobacteria, being more sensitive as well as an inexpensive technique. Autofluorescence can be a useful addition to routine cytology for early diagnosis and effective treatment. © 2013 Brijesh Thakur et al.

Kumar P.,Manipal University India | Sait S.F.,Manipal University India | Sharma A.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Kumar M.,Manipal University India
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2011

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication of assisted reproduction technology. The syndrome is characterized by cystic enlargement of the ovaries and a fluid shift from the intravascular to the third space due to increased capillary permeability and ovarian neoangiogenesis. Its occurrence is dependent on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). β-hCG and its analogs, estrogen, estradiol, prolactin, histamine and prostaglandins have all been implicated in OHSS but now it is increasingly better understood that the vasoactivesubstances such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-, endothelin-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the ovaries have been implicated in increasing vascular permeability. Enlargement of the ovaries causes abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Leakage of fluid from follicles, increased capillary permeability leading to third spacing (due to the release of vasoactive substances), or frank rupture of follicles can all cause ascites. Due to leakage of fluid through the impaired blood vessels both within and outside the ovary there is massive fluid-shift from the intra-vescular bed to the third compartment results in intravascular hypovolemia with concomitant development of edema, ascites, hydrothorax and/or hydropericardium. Low-dose gonadotrophin protocols have been implemented to reduce the risks of fertility treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Prophylactic albumin administration may interrupt the development of OHSS by increasing the plasma oncotic pressure and binding mediators of ovarian origin. OHSS is significantly lower in an antagonist protocol than in an agonist protocol. Cabergoline inhibits partially the VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation levels and associated vascular permeability without affecting luteal angiogenesis reduces the ′early′ (within the first 9 days after hCG) onset of OHSS. To prevent thrombosis, subcutaneous heparin 5000-7500 U/d is begun on the first day of admission. These patients need a hospital ward where the clinical picture is well understood and the personnel have expertise in its treatment and follow-up. Admission to an intensive care unit is necessary when critical OHSS develops.

Agarwal S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Aggarwal R.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Gupta P.,Medicity
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background: We compared the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to a 30 ml solution of 0.325% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block along with the duration of analgesia were the primary endpoints. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients posted for upper limb surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the control group S and the study group SD. In group S (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; and in group SD (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml (100 μg) dexmedetomidine were given for supraclavicular brachial plexus block using the peripheral nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were assessed along with the duration of analgesia, sedation, and adverse effects, if any. Hemodynamic parameters, like heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) were also monitored. Results: Demographic data and surgical characteristics were comparable in both the groups. The onset times for sensory and motor blocks were significantly shorter in SD than S group (P < 0.001), while the duration of blocks was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in SD group. Except for the initial recordings (at 0, 5, 10, and 15 min), heart rate levels in group SD were significantly lower (P < 0.001). SBP and DBP levels in SD group at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min were significantly lower than in S group (P < 0.001). In fact, when the percentage changes in HR/SBP/DBP were compared from 0-5/0-10/0-15/0-30/0-45/0-60/0-90/0-120 min in SD with S group, they came out to be highly significant (P < 0.001) in group SD. The duration of analgesia (DOA) was significantly longer in SD group than S group (P < 0.001). Except that, bradycardia was observed in one patient in the group SD, no other adverse effects were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine added as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block significantly shortens the onset time and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blocks and duration of analgesia. Patients in group SD were adequately sedated (modified Ramsay Sedation Score, RSS = 2/6 or 3/6) with no adverse effects except bradycardia in one patient of group SD.

Sood N.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital | Sinha K.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University | Year: 2016

Parachordoma is an uncommon tumour of soft tissue of uncertain origin. Recurrence and metastasis are rarely seen. We report two cases with one presenting as recurrent case of pelvic parachordoma in a 45 year old female who presented with painless pelvic mass since 2 months. The other case report is of a 30 year male patient who presented with a diffuse swelling over left palmar aspect. Cytology findings of the pelvic swelling revealed moderately cellular smears composed of large physaliphorous cells with abundant bubbly cytoplasm in clusters and singly scattered medium sized epithelioid like cells with round nuclei, vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli in background of abundant myxoid ground substance. Cytology of the Palmar swelling revealed moderate cellularity comprised of oval to spindle shaped cells with coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant vacuolated cytoplasm in a chondomyxoid stromal background. The preliminary diagnosis on cytology with further confirmation on histopathology with the aid of immunohistochemistry helped clinch the diagnosis of this rare entity of parachordoma occurring at unusual sites. © Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University.

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