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Sun L.,Deconstruction | Singh S.,Deconstruction | Joo M.,Life science DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryOne Cyclotron RoadBerkeley | Vega-Sanchez M.,Monsanto Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2015

Cellulose microfibrils represent the major scaffold of plant cell walls. Different packing and orientation of the microfibrils at the microscopic scale determines the macroscopic properties of cell walls and thus affect their functions with a profound effect on plant survival. We developed a polarized Raman microspectroscopic method to determine cellulose microfibril orientation within rice plant cell walls. Employing an array of point measurements as well as area imaging and subsequent Matlab-assisted data processing, we were able to characterize the distribution of cellulose microfibril orientation in terms of director angle and anisotropy magnitude. Using this approach we detected differences between wild type rice plants and the rice brittle culm mutant, which shows a more disordered cellulose microfibril arrangement, and differences between different tissues of a wild type rice plant. This novel non-invasive Raman imaging approach allows for quantitative assessment of cellulose fiber orientation in cell walls of herbaceous plants, an important advancement in cell wall characterization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kornmann M.,31 Chemindes Palettes | Palenzuela D.,Deconstruction | Dupont O.,Deconstruction
ZI, Ziegelindustrie International/Brick and Tile Industry International | Year: 2011

The transfers of moisture through the walls are critical for the energy consumption of the building, the comfort and health of the inhabitants, the aesthetics and the durability of the construction. The data available from the CE marking of perforated bricks can be used to compute the moisture transfers through brick walls. Through measurements and finite element calculations, it was shown that it is possible to calculate the moisture-related properties of perforated bricks when the properties of the ceramic material are known. This will reduce test time and improve measurement quality.


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