Dechema Institute

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Dechema Institute

Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Fuerbeth W.,Dechema Institute
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2017

In recent years the use of nanotechnological methods for all types of coatings has become increasingly important. Nanoparticles from sol-gel systems or from commercial dispersions as well as different types of nanocapsules or nanotubes may nowadays be used in order to develop novel coating systems or to improve the protective ability of conventional coating systems. The corrosion research group at the DECHEMA Research Institute has been engaged in this field for several years. Therefore this paper aims to give an exemplified overview on the different ways of using nanoparticles in protective coatings with a special focus on materials for light weight constructions. This will cover the oxidation protection of steels in press-hardening, the sealing of anodizing layers on aluminum substrates, the production of nanofibre-enhanced oxide layers under ultrasound conditions, as well as self-healing oxide layers on magnesium alloys. © 2017 by NACE International.

Muhler M.,Dechema Institute
ChemCatChem | Year: 2017

The German Catalysis Society (GeCatS) is the platform for the entire German catalysis community both in basic and applied research with about 1100 members from industry and academia. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-13-2014 | Award Amount: 7.22M | Year: 2015

The overall objective of the ALION project is to develop aluminium-ion battery technology for energy storage application in decentralised electricity generation sources. ALION pursues an integral approach comprising electroactive materials based on rocking chair mechanism, robust ionic liquid-based electrolytes as well as novel cell and battery concepts, finally resulting in a technology with much lower cost, improved performance, safety and reliability with respect to current energy storage solutions (e.g. Pumped hydro storage, Compressed air energy storage, Li-ion battery, Redox Flow Battery...). The project covers the whole value chain from materials and component manufacturers, battery assembler, until the technology validation in specific electric microgrid system including renewable energy source (i.e. mini wind turbine, photovoltaic system). Thus, the final objective of this project is to obtain an Al-ion battery module validated in a relevant environment, with a specific energy of 400 W.h/kg, a voltage of 48V and a cycle life of 3000 cycles.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.5-1 | Award Amount: 6.89M | Year: 2008

The overall objective of the project is to develop a novel, unconventional and cost efficient type of multipurpose high temperature coating systems on the basis of property tailoring by particle size processing of metallic source materials. It shall possess multi-functionality that will comprise thermal barrier effect, oxidation and corrosion protection, lotus effect, electrical insulation at elevated temperatures and fire protection. The concept of the novel approach to protection of surfaces is a coating consisting in its initial state of nano- and/or micro-scaled metal particles with a defined size, deposited by spraying, brushing, dipping or sol-gel. During the heat treatment, the binder is expelled, bonding to the substrate surface achieved, the metallic particles sinter and oxidise completely resulting in hollow oxide spheres that form a quasi-foam structure. Simultaneously, a diffusion layer is formed below the coating serving as a corrosion protection layer and as a bond coat for the top layer. The structure of the coating system shall be adjusted by parameters like selection of source metal/alloy, particle size, substrate, binder and a defined heat treatment. For fire protection the formation of hollow oxide spheres will be processed in a separate step before deposition. The flexibility of the new coatings integrates a wide field of application areas, such as gas and steam turbines in electric power generation and aero-engines, combustion chambers, boilers, steam generators and super-heaters, waste incineration, fire protection of composite materials in construction as well as reactors in chemical and petrochemical industry. A broad impact will thus be ensured increasing safety and the durability of components by an economic, multifunctional and flexible protection of their surfaces. The novelty will provide a real step change in the understanding of materials degradation mechanisms in extreme environments.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.6-04 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2012

There is a high societal need for a sustainable production of key chemistry, food and health care compounds. Microbial cell factories are logical production systems, but up to now they use sugars and other food derived raw materials as substrates. Sugars originating from plants demand cultivable land which is more and more needed for human nutrition. Methanol - with a worldwide production capacity of more than 46 million tons per year - is regarded as an alternative highly attractive raw material in microbial fermentation for the manufacturing of special, fine, bulk, and fuel chemicals. This is especially true for the EU market, where industrial biotechnology still is hampered by strict use and price regulations as well as import limitations for agricultural commodities, such as corn or sugar. The supply of methanol can base upon both fossil and renewable resources, rendering it a highly flexible and sustainable raw material. Our vision is a viable methanol-based European bio-economy, which we will promote by for the first time applying synthetic biology principles for cell factory development in order to harness methanol as a general feedstock for the manufacturing of special and fine chemicals. In nature, methylotrophic microorganisms can utilize methanol as their sole source of carbon and energy. The project PROMYSE will deliver an alternative route to sought-after chemicals, with a major focus on terpenoids. PROMYSE combines two frontline research topics: orthogonal modularization of methylotrophy within a Synthetic Biology concept and employing methanol as a feedstock for biotechnological production. Through the transfer of methylotrophy modules, Synthetic Biology will pave the way to capitalize on the metabolic versatility and engineered production pathways of genetically well tractable microorganisms, such as E. coli, B. subtilis and C. glutamicum for biotransformation from methanol.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-16-2015 | Award Amount: 10.51M | Year: 2016

RAISELIFE focuses on extending the in-service lifetime of five key materials for concentrated solar power technologies: 1) protective and anti-soiling coatings of primary reflectors, 2) high-reflective surfaces for heliostats, 3) high-temperature secondary reflectors, 4) receiver coatings for solar towers and line-focus collectors, 5) corrosion resistant high-temperature metals and coatings for steam and molten salts. The project brings together a broad consortium formed of industry partners, SMEs and research institutes of the concentrating solar thermal and material science sector. The scope has been significantly shaped by the leading EPC of solar tower technology, BrightSource, who constructed Ivanpah, the worlds largest solar tower plant. This unique constellation permits a direct transfer of the obtained results in RAISELIFE into new commercial solar thermal power plant projects within less than 5 years and helps to solve urgent matters of current commercial power plants (e.g. the high temperature oxidation of absorber coatings on metallic tower receivers). For this purpose several TRL6 functional materials are being tested in accelerated climate chamber tests, field-tests under elevated solar flux and in-service in BSIIs power plants, with the final goal of increasing durability and performance and in consequence reducing CAPEX and OPEX. We project that commercial implementation of the subject technologies could account for as much as 2.5-3 euro-cent Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) reduction per kWh of electricity produced for solar tower technology between 2015 and 2020.

Dittmeyer R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bortolotto L.,Dechema Institute
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

The surface of hydrogen-permeable PdCu membranes acting as a catalyst for direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol in the gas phase in a novel catalytic double-membrane reactor was modified by sputtering on it different catalytic layers with the aim to increase the formation rate and selectivity to phenol. Three different systems are described: a 1 μm thick compact layer of Pd 90Au10 (10 wt.% Au), a 5 μm thick compact layer of PdGa (50 at.% Ga) and a thin film of Pd90Au10 deposited on a discontinuous V2O5 layer. The different systems were characterized by SEM, EDX, and mainly in terms of their catalytic properties for benzene hydroxylation. The formation rate and the selectivity to phenol could be increased substantially through the catalytic modification. With a maximum phenol selectivity of 67% at 150 °C and a maximum phenol formation rate of 1.67 × 10-4 mol h-1 m-2 at 200 °C, PdAu reached the best performance in double-membrane operation mode. PdGa showed even more promising results compared to PdAu in kinetic experiments in co-feed operation mode, but suffers from the very low hydrogen permeability of PdGa which stands against its use as a continuous layer in the catalytic membrane reactor. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gyenge E.L.,University of British Columbia | Drillet J.-F.,Dechema Institute
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

Gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) composed of: Toray carbon paper gas diffusion layer (unteflonated and teflonated with 30wt PTFE, respectively) and MnO 2 supported on Vulcan XC72R catalyst layer with 20wt PTFE, were investigated in 6 M KOH without and with O 2, respectively. Four sources of MnO 2 (Sigma-Aldrich, Tronox, Riedel and Merck Inc.) were comparatively studied by electrochemical methods accompanied by XRD characterization. Cyclic voltammetry scans of GDE in N 2-purged electrolyte were used to estimate the Tafel slopes for Mn(IV) reduction and to identify active Mn(IV) sites that play an important catalytic role. Two oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanisms were identified by porous rotating disk electrode (PRDE) polarization as a function of electrode potential. At high potentials (above -300 mV vs. MOE) the O 2HO 2 - step is mainly catalyzed by the quasi-unreduced MnO 2 surface and active sites on the carbon support, while at potentials more negative than -300 mV, the redox catalysis by Mn(III) prevails. The main catalytic sites for the second step HO 2 -OH -, are Mn(III) sites. The hydrophobic property of the porous electrode is important due to the effect on peroxide desorptionreadsorption on the electrode surface. PRDE and flow cell experiments revealed the Sigma-Aldrich -MnO 2 was the most active for ORR. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

Hollmann F.,Technical University of Delft | Arends I.W.C.E.,Technical University of Delft | Holtmann D.,Dechema Institute
Green Chemistry | Year: 2011

When challenged by a difficult reduction reaction, a chemist should always also consider biocatalysis in synthesis planning. The inherent selectivity of enzymes has been known for many decades now and the practical applicability of biocatalysis has undergone dramatic improvements rendering it a true alternative to established chemocatalysis. In this contribution recent developments in the field of enzymatic reduction using whole cells and isolated enzymes are reviewed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

A method is provided for corrosion-proofing substrates made of materials containing cobalt, nickel and/or iron, in which cracking in the material and in a corrosion-proofing layer can be avoided. For this purpose, a slurry containing aluminium is applied to a substrate and the substrate, together with the applied slurry, is then subjected to a brief annealing of the surface layer at reduced temperature. Due to the heating of the surface layer of the substrate and of the slurry during the annealing of the surface layer, an exothermic reaction between the aluminium and the substrate metal takes place on the surface of the substrate, so that aluminide phases are formed which produce an aluminide diffusion layer on the substrate. Above this layer remains a residual layer of unused slurry.

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