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Hargitai H.,Eotvos Lorand University | Li C.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories | Zhang Z.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories | Zuo W.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories | And 4 more authors.
Cartographic Journal | Year: 2016

The Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature (GPN) is maintained by the International Astronomical Union Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature. It contains the internationally approved forms of place names of planetary and lunar surface features. In the last decades, spacefaring and other nations have started to develop local standardized equivalents of the GPN. This initiated the development of transformation methods and created a need for auxiliary information on the names in the GPN that is not available from the database of the GPN. The creation of ‘localized’ (local language) variants of the GPN in non-Roman scripts is an unavoidable necessity, but is also a cultural need. This paper investigates the localization methods into Chinese, Russian two nations with different scripts, and two that are spacefaring ones. The need for the creation of a localized GPN is related to the local importance of scientific papers published in the local language and the existence of locally developed and operated scientific planetary spacecrafts, but exceptions exist. © The British Cartographic Society 2016 Source


Smithers C.N.,Deceased
Australian Entomologist | Year: 2012

Two direct observations of butterflies at high altitudes in thermals are noted, supporting the hypothesis that long distance migration of butterflies between Australia and New Zealand takes place at high altitudes. Source


Mulcahey M.J.,Thomas Jefferson University | Slavin M.D.,University at Albany | Ni P.,University at Albany | Vogel L.C.,Shriners Hospitals for Children | And 3 more authors.
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: The Cerebral Palsy Computerized Adaptive Test (CP-CAT) is a parent-reported outcomes instrument for measuring lower and upper-extremity function, activity, and global health across impairment levels and a broad age range of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study was performed to examine whether the Lower Extremity/Mobility (LE) CP-CAT detects change in mobility following orthopaedic surgery in children with CP.METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal study involved administration of the LE CP-CAT, the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) Transfer/Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning domains, and the Timed "Up & Go" test (TUG) before and after elective orthopaedic surgery in a convenience sample of 255 children, four to twenty years of age, who had CP and a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level of I, II, or III. Standardized response means (SRMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for all measures at six, twelve, and twenty-four months following surgery.RESULTS: SRM estimates for the LE CP-CAT were significantly greater than the SRM estimates for the PODCI Transfer/Mobility domain at twelve months, the PODCI Sports/Physical Functioning domain at twelve months, and the TUG at twelve and twenty-four months. When the results for the children at GMFCS levels I, II, and III were grouped together, the improvements in function detected by the LE CP-CAT at twelve and twenty-four months were found to be greater than the changes detected by the PODCI Transfer/Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning scales. The LE CP-CAT outperformed the PODCI scales for GMFCS levels I and III at both of these follow-up intervals; none of the scales performed well for patients with GMFCS level II.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the LE CP-CAT displayed superior sensitivity to change than the PODCI and TUG scales after musculoskeletal surgery in children with CP. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated. Source


Harper D.A.T.,Copenhagen University | Alvarez F.,University of Oviedo | Boucoti A.J.,Oregon State University | Williams A.,Deceased | And 2 more authors.
Special Papers in Palaeontology | Year: 2010

The phylogenetic placement of Tropidoleptus, a common and distinctive genus of articulated brachiopod, has proved difficult. Tropidoleptus has, for example, been related to orthides, strophomenides and terebratulides. In the first edition of the Treatise, the genus was assigned to the Enteletoidea, largely on the basis of its general shape and the presence of punctation. The cyrtomatodont dentition, however, and complex cardinalia with crurae, apophyses and a median septum are more typical of some of the more unusual rhynchonellides, for example the Uncinuloidea and more specifically the Eatoniidae. A punctate shell condition, nonetheless, has not been reported in that group. It is argued that Tropidoleptus, although it shares many of its features with a number of rhynchonellate orders, has characteristic and unique features justifying the elevation of the Tropidoleptidae to ordinal status, and cladistic analysis places the new order in a basal position within the Rhynchonellata stemgroup. © The Palaeontological Association. Source


Topol G.A.,National University of Rosario | Podesta L.A.,National University of Rosario | Reeves K.D.,Private Practice | Giraldo M.M.,Hospital Provincial de Rosario | And 5 more authors.
PM and R | Year: 2016

Background: Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. Objective: To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Design: Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Setting: Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Participants: Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Intervention: Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Main Outcome Measures: Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Results: Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Conclusions: Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen after prolotherapy with hypertonic dextrose injection in participants with symptomatic grade IV KOA, suggesting disease-modifying effects and the need for confirmation in controlled studies. Minimally invasive arthroscopy (single-compartment, single-portal) enabled collection of robust intra-articular data. © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Source

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