Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute
Pune, India

Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute also referred as Deccan College is a post-graduate institute of Archeology and Linguistics in Pune, India. Wikipedia.

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Deo S.G.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Rajaguru S.N.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

Geomorphological studies carried out around coastal sites at Hazira, Kanmer, Padri and Sanjan in Gujarat, and Chaul, and Kelshi in Maharashtra indicate human activity throughout the Holocene. The offshore site at Hazira, of early Holocene age, is the only submerged prehistoric site at a depth of 20-40. m below the present sea level in the entire 7000. km long coastline of India. Protohistoric Harappan sites at Kanmer and Padri are of mid-Holocene age. The sites of Sanjan, Chaul and Kelshi represent an Early Historic cultural phase belonging to the Late Holocene age. The site of Hazira was located on the banks of a buried channel adjusted to the low sea level phase of the Early Holocene. Cultural development of the Harappan site at Kanmer in the present semi-arid rocky landscape of Kachchh was closely related to the existence of 2-5. m deep water in the presently dried up part of Rann of Kachchh throughout the mid-Holocene. On the other hand the economy of the Harappan site of Padri depended on salt manufacturing in a stable estuarine environment close to the present sea level of the Gulf of Cambay. Sanjan, Chaul and Kelshi appear to have depended on a trading economy. These sites are situated in estuarine environments involving lateral transgressive-regressive phases more or less within the present intertidal zone of Arabian Sea in a humid environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Westaway R.,Open University Milton Keynes | Westaway R.,Northumbria University | Mishra S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Deo S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Bridgland D.R.,Durham University
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2011

Tephra, emplaced as a result of Pleistocene eruption of the Indonesian 'supervolcano' Toba, occurs at many localities in India. However, the ages of these deposits have hitherto been contentious; some workers have argued that these deposits mark the most recent eruption (eruption A, ca 75 ka), although at some sites they are stratigraphically associated with Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic) artefacts. Careful examination of the geochemical composition of the tephras, which are composed predominantly of shards of rhyolitic glass, indicates that discrimination between the products of eruption A and eruption D (ca 790 ka) of Toba is difficult. Nonetheless, this comparison favours eruption D as the source of the tephra deposits at some sites in India, supporting the long-held view that the Lower Palaeolithic of India spans the late Early Pleistocene. In principle, these tephra deposits should be dateable using the K-Ar system; however, previous experience indicates contamination by a small proportion of ancient material, resulting in apparent ages that exceed the true ages of the tephras. We have established the optimum size-fraction in which the material from Toba is concentrated, 53-61 μm, and have considered possible origins for the observed contamination. We also demonstrate that Ar-Ar analysis of four out of five of our samples has yielded material with an apparent age similar to that expected for eruption D. These numerical ages, of 809 ± 51, 714 ± 62, 797 ± 45 and 827 ± 39 ka for the tephras at Morgaon, Bori, Gandhigram and Simbhora, provide a weighted mean age for this eruption of 799 ± 24 ka (plus-or-minus two standard deviations). However, these numerical ages are each derived from no more than 10-20% of the argon release in each sample, which is not ideal. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that it is feasible, in principle, to date this difficult material using the Ar-Ar technique; future follow-up studies will therefore be able to refine our preparation and analysis procedures to better optimize the dating. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Agarwal S.,Dehradun Institute of Technology | Pandey R.K.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Pradhan A.,Hindu Post graduate College
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

The present study deals with a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-II cosmological models representing massive strings in normal gauge for Lyra's manifold by applying the variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter. The variation law for Hubble's parameter generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. Using these two forms, Einstein's modified field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The energy-momentum tensor for such string as formulated by Letelier (Phys Rev D 28:2414, 1983) is used to construct massive string cosmological models for which we assume that the expansion (θ) in the model is proportional to the component σ 1 1 of the shear tensor σ i j . This condition leads to A = (BC) m, where A, B and C are the metric coefficients and m is proportionality constant. Our models are in accelerating phase which is consistent with the recent observations. It has been found that the displacement vector β behaves like cosmological term λ in the normal gauge treatment and the solutions are consistent with recent observations of SNe Ia. It has been found that massive strings dominate in the decelerating universe, whereas strings dominate in the accelerating universe. Some physical and geometric behaviours of these models are also discussed. © 2012 Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.

Singhvi A.K.,Physical Research Laboratory | Williams M.A.J.,University of Adelaide | Rajaguru S.N.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Misra V.N.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010

An 18.4 m excavated dune section in the Thar Desert of India with a chronology based on 12 TL ages and a basal age of ∼190 ka has preserved 12 cycles of dune accretion, soil formation, calcrete development, and subsequent erosion, together with the presence of stone artefacts ranging in age from Lower Palaeolithic to Mesolithic, coeval with more humid climatic interludes. Phases of soil development and carbonate precipitation were relatively wet and phases of dune accretion relatively dry, so that there were 12 significant moist intervals separated by 11 drier intervals during the past ∼190 ka. The calculated time interval between successive phases of dune sand accumulation ranged from 22.2 ka to 15.8 ka, with a mean of 19.0 ka. These values are consistent with a precessional influence on dune activity and on the associated onset of early monsoonal activity in this region. Carbon isotopes measured on organic matter within the sand profiles show consistent values close to -21.6 ± 1‰, pointing to deposition during a transitional climatic regime characterized by a change from open C3 grassland to C4 woodland or forest. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gaillard C.,French Natural History Museum | Mishra S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Singh M.,Society for Archaeological and Anthropological Research | Deo S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

Large cutting tools have been known for a long time in South Asia and have always been considered to be related to the Acheulian. The character of the Indian Acheulian, however, has not been well described and its evolution is poorly known, as there are few sites which are dated. Advances in geochronology have yielded increasingly early dates from most parts of the world where Lower Palaeolithic occupation is documented. These techniques have been barely applied to the South Asian sites but it is highly significant that the dating attempts have provided Lower Pleistocene ages. In this paper the handful of sites for which some chronological data is available and are older than 600. ka are presented. Their assemblages are highly diversified, in composition, but their large cutting tools (especially cleavers but also handaxes) are mostly based on the production of large flakes. They compare well with the early Acheulian from other parts of the world. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Prasad S.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Prasad S.,University of Potsdam | Anoop A.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Riedel N.,Senckenberg Institute | And 13 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

Concerns about the regional impact of global climate change in a warming scenario have highlighted the gaps in our understanding of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM, also referred to as the Indian Ocean summer monsoon) and the absence of long term palaeoclimate data from the central Indian core monsoon zone (CMZ). Here we present the first high resolution, well-dated, multiproxy reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate from a 10 m long sediment core raised from the Lonar Lake in central India. We show that while the early Holocene onset of intensified monsoon in the CMZ is similar to that reported from other ISM records, the Lonar data shows two prolonged droughts (PD, multidecadal to centennial periods of weaker monsoon) between 4.6-3.9 and 2-0.6 cal ka. A comparison of our record with available data from other ISM influenced sites shows that the impact of these PD was observed in varying degrees throughout the ISM realm and coincides with intervals of higher solar irradiance. We demonstrate that (i) the regional warming in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) plays an important role in causing ISM PD through changes in meridional overturning circulation and position of the anomalous Walker cell; (ii) the long term influence of conditions like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the ISM began only ca. 2 cal ka BP and is coincident with the warming of the southern IPWP; (iii) the first settlements in central India coincided with the onset of the first PD and agricultural populations flourished between the two PD, highlighting the significance of natural climate variability and PD as major environmental factors affecting human settlements. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Robbins Schug G.,Appalachian State University | Gray K.,University College London | Mushrif-Tripathy V.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Sankhyan A.R.,Anthropological Survey of India
International Journal of Paleopathology | Year: 2012

Thousands of settlements stippled the third millennium B.C. landscape of Pakistan and northwest India. These communities maintained an extensive exchange network that spanned West and South Asia. They shared remarkably consistent symbolic and ideological systems despite a vast territory, including an undeciphered script, standardized weights, measures, sanitation and subsistence systems, and settlement planning. The city of Harappa (3300-1300. B.C.) sits at the center of this Indus River Valley Civilization. The relatively large skeletal collection from Harappa offers an opportunity to examine biocultural aspects of urban life and its decline in South Asian prehistory. This paper compares evidence for cranial trauma among burial populations at Harappa through time to assess the hypothesis that Indus state formation occurred as a peaceful heterarchy. The prevalence and patterning of cranial injuries, combined with striking differences in mortuary treatment and demography among the three burial areas indicate interpersonal violence in Harappan society was structured along lines of gender and community membership. The results support a relationship at Harappa among urbanization, access to resources, social differentiation, and risk of interpersonal violence. Further, the results contradict the dehumanizing, unrealistic myth of the Indus Civilization as an exceptionally peaceful prehistoric urban civilization. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Mishra S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Gaillard C.,French Natural History Museum | Hertler C.,Senckenberg Institute | Moigne A.-M.,French Natural History Museum | Simanjuntak T.,Center for Prehistoric and Austronesian Studies
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

The archaeological, paleontological and hominin records of India and Java are compared. It is argued that during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene, the palaeolithic technology in both the regions was Large Flake Acheulian (LFA) which is attested to by numerous sites in Peninsular India, some finds from Pinjor exposures in NW India and the site of Ngebung in the Sangiran dome area of Java. We argue that the non-Acheulian assemblages attributed to this period actually come from later contexts. During the Lower and Middle Pleistocene, fauna in Java associated with Homo erectus was related to the Indian Pinjor fauna. Although hominin fossils have not been found in India for this time period, it is likely that Homo erectus was the maker of the LFA tools in India, given the presence of LFA in Java in strata with a Pinjor related fauna and Homo erectus. Sometime during the Late Pleistocene the fauna in Java underwent a very significant change from the earlier Pinjor related fauna (Stegodon- Homo-erectus fauna) to the Punung fauna (Elephas-Homo sapiens). This change is related to an ecological shift from a more savannah like to a more rainforest like environment. It is during this time, rather than earlier, that the " Movius line" has an archaeological, paleontological and ecological validity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Schug G.R.,Appalachian State University | Blevins K.E.,Appalachian State University | Cox B.,Appalachian State University | Gray K.,University College London | Mushrif-Tripathy V.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

In the third millennium B.C., the Indus Civilization flourished in northwest India and Pakistan. The late mature phase (2200-1900 B.C.) was characterized by long-distance exchange networks, planned urban settlements, sanitation facilities, standardized weights and measures, and a sphere of influence over 1,000,000 square kilometers of territory. Recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the Beas River Valley demonstrate hydro-climatic stress due to a weakened monsoon system may have impacted urban centers like Harappa by the end of the third millennium B.C. the impact of environmental change was compounded by concurrent disruptions to the regional interaction sphere. Climate, economic, and social changes contributed to the disintegration of this civilization after 1900 B.C. We assess evidence for paleopathology to infer the biological consequences of climate change and socio-economic disruption in the post-urban period at Harappa, one of the largest urban centers in the Indus Civilization. Bioarchaeological evidence demonstrates the prevalence of infection and infectious disease increased through time. Furthermore, the risk for infection and disease was uneven among burial communities. Corresponding mortuary differences suggest that socially and economically marginalized communities were most vulnerable in the context of climate uncertainty at Harappa. Combined with prior evidence for increasing levels of interpersonal violence, our data support a growing pathology of power at Harappa after 2000 B.C. Observations of the intersection between climate change and social processes in proto-historic cities offer valuable lessons about vulnerability, insecurity, and the long-term consequences of short-term strategies for coping with climate change. © 2013 Robbins Schug et al.

Karlekar S.,P.A. College | Rajaguru S.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute
Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers | Year: 2012

There are many conflicting field evidences of Holocene sea level changes along entire Konkan coast of Maharashtra. It was apparent in the field that the reported field evidences for Holocene sea level changes are unequivocal and that detailed topographic and stratigraphic studies of the coastal area would be required to elucidate the Holocene coastal evolution. These sea level changes were mainly recorded as configurational changes. The identification and mapping of coastal features along the coast reveal that during the late Holocene this coast was characterized by barrier spits, open inlets and estuaries. Wide dune systems comprising of fore and back dunes, mangrove swamps, abandoned and realigned spit bars and littoral terraces found almost everywhere on this coast suggest some degree of reorientation and configurational change in the late Holocene. The estuarine systems on this coast matured during the late Holocene, with progressive sedimentation and seasonal inlet closure, leading to the dominance of mangrove swamps in the past 1000 years. Coastal configuration and features are interpreted to represent a mid to late Holocene high stand along this coast.

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