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Jakab A.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Katai J.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Tallai M.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Ballane Kovacs A.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma
Agrokemia es Talajtan

A pot experiment was set up on 27 May 2010 in the greenhouse of the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science using pseudomyceliar chernozem soil, originating from the Debrecen-Látókép area. The soil had the following parameters: Upper limit of plasticity according to Arany (KA): 37.5; Clay and silt content: 51%; pH(KCl): 5.5; pH(H 2O): 6.6; Humus %: 2.8; AL-P2O5: 140 mg•kg-1; AL-K2O: 316.3 mg•kg-1, showing that the soil was mildly acidic, of loam texture, with moderate supplies of nitrogen and phosphorus and good supplies of potassium. The basic treatments in the experiment were control, mineral fertilizer and straw treatment, while in some combinations these were supplemented with three different bacterial fertilizers (Bactofil A, EM-1 and Microbion UNC). The 12 treatments in the two-factorial experiment were arranged in a random block design with three replications, giving a total of 36 pots. The test plant was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Eight weeks after the start of the experiment, plant samples were taken for the determination of dry mass, phosphorus and potassium content, and soil samples for the determination of nitrate and AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium contents. The following conclusions could be drawn from the results: - The dry mass of perennial ryegrass was significantly increased by the mineral fertilizer treatment. This can be attributed to the improvement in nutrient supplies. - The phosphorus concentration of the plants declined in response to mineral fertilization, which can be explained by the dilution effect. - The potassium concentration of the plants was significantly enhanced by both the mineral fertilizer and mineral fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer treatments. - The soil nitrate content increased significantly in all treatments except mineral fertilization. - The AL-P2O5 content of the soil exhibited a significant increase after treatment with NPK mineral fertilizer and EM-1, while the AL-K2O content only rose in the straw treatment. - When applied alone, the bacterial fertilizers did not generally cause any substantial change in the parameters tested, but when they were combined with organic or mineral materials they had various effects on the parameters. Source

Katai J.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Jakab A.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Sandor Z.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Zsuposne Olah A.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma | Tallai M.,Debreceni Egyetem Agrar Es Gazdalkoda studomanyok Centruma
Agrokemia es Talajtan

The effect of various treatments (5, 10, 15, 20 g•kg-1) with bentonite and zeolite on the capillary water rise and water retention ability of sandy soil was analysed in the laboratory. A pot experiment was also performed to investigate the effect of these materials on the chemical and microbiological parameters of the soil and on the dry matter content of the biomass of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), used as test plant. The experiment was set up in the institute nursery between 2007 and 2010 on acidic [pH(H2O) = 5.6] humus-containing sandy soil (originating from Pallag) in three replications. A total of thirty 6-kg pots, perforated at the bottom, were used in the experiment. The bentonite and zeolite applied had a loamy texture (upper limit of plasticity according to Arany, KA = 40-41) and were mildly alkaline [pH(H2O) = 7.3-7.8]. The mean results of the 4-year series of experiments can be summarized as follows: - As the application rate of bentonite and zeolite increased, there was a parallel reduction in the capillary water rise of the sandy soil. At the highest rate of zeolite the capillary water rise was smaller than for the same rate of bentonite. The water retention ability of both bentonite and zeolite was significantly greater than that of sand. As the application rate increased, the quantity of water retained in the soil also rose. Compared to the water retention of sandy soil, bentonite was found to retain 10% more water than zeolite. - The acidity of the soil [both pH(H2O) and pH(KCl)] rose significantly in response to all the bentonite and zeolite rates, while the hydrolytic acidity declined. Even low rates caused a significant increase in pH. - The readily available nutrient content of the soil exhibited an increase in response to both natural additives. There was a slight rise in the soil nitrate-N content, while the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium contents increased significantly. - Apart from the quantity of microscopic fungi, all the soil microbiological parameters were positively influenced by bentonite and even the low and moderate rates had a significant positive effect. In the case of zeolite, the moderate and high rates resulted in the highest values of these parameters. The majority of soil microbiological parameters were enhanced to a greater extent by zeolite than by bentonite. - There was an increase in plant biomass: for both additives the greatest dry matter production was recorded for the moderate rate. Zeolite was found to have a better yield-increasing effect than bentonite. Source

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