Debre Mark’os, Ethiopia
Debre Mark’os, Ethiopia

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Rampriya B.,Debre Markos University
International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics | Year: 2016

This paper presents the solution for the suppliers’ aims to achieve profit more than the rivals participating in the competition. The supplier (decision maker) optimization problem is formulated and their bid quantities are optimized using Self adaptive Differential Evolution (SaDE). A six unit system is used to illustrate the methodology for a single trading period with both elastic and inelastic loads. The performance of the test systems under perfect and oligopoly market situations are compared to show the importance of optimization of bidding parameters in deregulated markets. Numerical results illustrate the effectiveness of the method in solving the supplier profit maximization problem. © 2016, School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics. All rights reserved.

Shiferaw M.T.,Debre Markos University | Wubshet M.,University of Gondar | Tegabu D.,University of Gondar
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Menstrual problems are the most common gynecologic complaints. The prevalence is highest in the 20 to 24-year-old age group and decreases progressively thereafter. They affect not only the woman, but also family, social and national economics as well. However, Population studies on Menstrual problems and associated factors were very little for university students in Ethiopia.METHODS: Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed at Bahir Dar University from October 14 to 20, 2010, Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique was used and 491 study subjects were randomly selected from faculties. Only 470 respondents had given complete response for the self-administered questionnaire and were included in the final analysis. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 windows. The main statistical method applied was logistic regression (unconditional) and both the classical bivariate and the multivariate analyses were considered.RESULTS: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were 85.1% and 72.8%, respectively. The most contributing factors remained to be statistically significant and independently associated with dysmenorrhea were having menstrual cycle length of 21-35 days (AOR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.71), family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR=3.80, 95%CI: 2.13, 6.78) and circumcision (AOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.001, 3.386) while with premenstrual syndrome were educational status of mothers being certified in certificate and beyond (AOR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.83), living in Peda campus (AOR=2.11, 95%: 1.30, 3.45), having irregular menstruation (AOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.17, 2.99) and family history of premenstrual syndrome (AOR=4.19, 95%CI: 2.60, 6.74).CONCLUSION: The prevalence of menstrual problems among students of Bahir Dar University was very high. Menstrual cycle length, family history of dysmenorrhea and circumcision were the most contributing factors associated with dysmenorrhea while educational status of mothers, regularity of menstruation, and family history of premenstrual syndrome were for premenstrual syndrome. Health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling, should be accessible and persistently provided to the affected students by Bahir Dar University. Maximum effort is needed to eliminate circumcision by all levels and further steps that would enable females to join their college education should be applied.

Asress M.B.,Debre Markos University | Simonovic A.,University of Belgrade | Komarov D.,University of Belgrade | Stupar S.,University of Belgrade
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Over the centuries, energy has been supplied by wood, coal, oil and natural gas, as well as by uranium. All these energy sources are limited and create pollution problems. This has led countries to focus on a sustainable and cleaner energy sources. Wind energy is rapidly emerging as one of the most cost-effective forms of renewable energy with very significant increases in annual installed capacity around the world. In this paper, authors have tried to review the current state of wind power utilization in Ethiopia. First, a brief overview is given on the Ethiopian electric power sector in order to gain insight into the main energy sources of the country and installed electric power capacities. Wind energy potential and current energy policy in Ethiopia were discussed respectively in the subsequent sections. Finally, short reviews of the ongoing and planned wind energy together with other renewable energy projects are given. Ethiopia, a country that relies on hydroelectric plants for the bulk of its power, is now developing significant wind energy capacities. Lack of reliable wind data covering the entire country has been one of the reasons for limited application of wind energy in Ethiopia, but recently studies have shown that Ethiopia has substantial potential to generate electricity from wind, geothermal and hydropower. Considering the substantial wind resource in the country, the government has committed itself to generate power from wind plants by constructing eight wind farms with total capacities of 1116 MW together with a number of hydropower plants over the five year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) period from 2011 to 2015. This development of wind power is a part of the current energy sector policy of the country that aims at a five-fold increase in renewable energy production by the end of 2015. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alemu B.,Debre Markos University | Animut G.,Haramaya University | Tolera A.,Hawassa University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

A survey was conducted in two regional states of Ethiopia, the Amhara National Regional State (ANRS) and the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), to generate information about the cultivation and utilisation of Millettia ferruginea (Hochst) Baker, including use of the plant as livestock feed. Two districts from each Regional State, 4 peasant associations (PAs) from each district and 10 households from each PA were purposively selected based on availability and recognition in the area of M. ferruginea. Data were collected using questionnaire. The period from February to May was reported as critical feed shortage seasons and SNNPRS respondents noted M. ferruginea as a feed resource was used to balance deficits during times of feed shortage. All respondents from SNNPRS and about 41% from ANRS used M. ferruginea as livestock feed. Some respondents from ANRS were however, unaware of the use of M. ferruginea as animal feed. Leaves, flowers and twigs of M. ferruginea were mentioned as edible parts of the plant by cattle, sheep and goats. Feeding M. ferruginea in mixture with other feedstuffs is a common practice in SNNPRS, while the sole M. ferruginea is fed in ANRS. All respondents from SNNPRS had a positive impression on the feeding value of M. ferruginea and indicated improved growth and milk output, no abortion, health problem and deaths of animals was observed due to M. ferruginea feeding. Conversely, the level of understanding of the feeding value of M. ferruginea in ANRS appeared to be low. Other uses of M. ferruginea noted by respondents include use for fishing, firewood, bee foraging, local construction materials and to make household utensils, to improve soil fertility, to provide shade to companion crops, as source of immediate cash income and as pesticide. These and other unmentioned good biological attributes of M. ferruginea therefore, makes it an appropriate choice for its inclusion in agroforestry systems and the tree can contribute to livestock production through provision of feed.

Yihune M.,Debre Markos University | Bekele A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Feeding ecology of the Ethiopian wolf was studied in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, during 2011-2012 using faecal analysis. A total of 214 faecal samples were collected from the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and a chi-square test was used to test seasonal differences in the frequency of prey item consumed. Percentage frequency of occurrence/scats and percentage frequency of occurrence/item were calculated. A Chesson index of prey preference was also calculated. Eight categories of prey items were identified from the Ethiopian wolf faecal samples. These comprised five species of rodents, sheep, birds and grass. Rodents occurred in most of the samples, and they were the most important prey items in their frequency of occurrence. Among the diurnal murid rodents (Arvicanthis abyssinicus, Lophuromys flavopunctatus and Otomys typus), A. abyssinicus (72%) was the most common species in the diet followed by L. flavopunctatus (24.3%). Arvicanthis abyssinicus was the most highly preferred prey item, with a Chesson index value of 0.3. There was no significant seasonal difference (χ2 = 2.03, d.f. = 1, P > 0.05) in the frequency of prey items recorded during the wet and dry seasons. As rodents are the main prey source of the Ethiopian wolf, they have to be protected to conserve the Ethiopian wolf in the study area. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP) in feed intake, body weight gain, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and economic efficiency on Rhode Island Red (RIR) grower chicks. A total of three hundred RIR grower chicks at eight weeks of age were grouped into 20 pens of 15 chicks each and randomly assigned to five treatments (control fed a commercial ration; 5% DTP; 10% DTP; 15% DTP; 20% DTP) according to a completely randomized design(RCD). Birds fed on 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP had the higher Dry Matter (DM) mtake(72.93,72.75, 72.98 and 73.15 g/bird/day) than the control group (72.10 g/bird/day). The daily body weight gain of birds ranged from 13.3-15.3 g/day, the highest being on birds fed on 5% DTP; The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of birds were 5.3, 4.8, 5.0, 5.3 and 5.5 for the control and for birds that consumed 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP, respectively, with significant difference observed between 5 and 20% DTP. The economic efficiency of the experimental diets was 1.35, 1.79, 1.80, 1.78 and 1.82 for a group fed on the control, 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP, respectively. There was a higher significant (p<0.05) difference on a group fed on DTP and the control diet. DTP which contains 20% brought the highest economic efficiency among the groups. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that dried tomato pomace could be incorporated in grower chick rations at the level of 20% without any adverse effect on growth performance in order to increase the economic efficiency. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.

Amsalu G.,Debre Markos University | Mekonnen Z.,Jimma University | Erko B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: The endemicity of human schistosomiasis has long been established in Ethiopia, and new foci have also been continuously reported. The objective of this study was to determine the transmission and magnitude of schistosomiasis in Hayk area, northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children was conducted for intestinal schistosomiasis between January and March 2010 in two primary schools in Hayk area, northeastern Ethiopia. The stool samples were processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz technique. Malacological survey and observation on human water contact activities were also carried out. Snails were checked for schistosome infection by shedding and lab-bred mice were exposed to the cercariae shed from Biomphalaria pfeifferi en masse. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were harvested from the mice after 45 days of exposure to the schistosome cercariae. Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in Hayk Number 1 and Hayk Number 2 Primary Schools was found to be 45% and 161 epg, respectively. The prevalence of infection had relationship with age and sex. Males were more infected than females. Children in the age group 15-19 years had the highest infection rate, followed by 10-14 and 5-9 years age group. Schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 3.2%. Schistosome infection was also established in laboratory-bred mice and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were harvested. Conclusion: The observed intestinal schistosomiasis with prevalence of 45% among young children, collection of schistosome infected Biomphalaria pfeifferi, and the establishment of lab infection in mice showed that transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis is taking place in the area. Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel should be immediately put in place to reduce morbidity and interrupt transmission of schistosomiasis in the area. © 2015 Amsalu et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Bekele D.,Debre Markos University | Belyhun Y.,Health Science University | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Deressa W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: In the Adami Tulu District, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has been the main tool used to control malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of IRS and ITNs control strategies in Aneno Shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of Ethiopia) compared with Kamo Gerbi (supplied ITN only) and Jela Aluto (no IRS and ITNs), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted after heavy rains (October/November, 2006) and during the sporadic rains (April, 2007) in the three kebeles of Adami Tulu District. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film. Monthly collection of adult mosquitoes from October-December 2006 and April-May 2007 and sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the collected mosquitoes were detected. Data related to the knowledge of moDe of malaria transmission and its control measures were collected. Data collected on parasitological and knowledge, attituDe and practice (KAP) surveys were managed and analysed using a statistical computer program SPSS version 13.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of malaria was 8.6% in Jela Aluto, 4.4% in Kamo Gerbi and 1.3% in Aneno Shisho in the two season surveys. The vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles coustani were recorded. However, sporozoite ELISA on mosquito collections detected no infection. The difference in overall malaria prevalence and mosquito density between the three kebeles was significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present study has provided some evidence for the success of ITNs/IRS combined malaria control measures in Aneno Shisho kebele in Adami Tulu District. Therefore, the combined ITNs/IRS malaria control measures must be expanded to cover all kebeles in the District of Ethiopia. © 2012 Bekele et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bitew T.,Debre Markos University
Ethiopian journal of health sciences | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common and disabling mental illness in the globe. It accounts for about 6.5% of the burden of diseases in Ethiopia. Regardless of its severity and relapse rate, there are no synthesized evidences about its prevalence and potential risk factors in Ethiopia. The aim of this review was thus to synthesize scientific information about the prevalence and potential risk factors of depression in Ethiopia.METHODS: Out of 37 papers, 31 were collected from PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar electronic databases, and the remaining six from Addis Ababa University, Department of Psychiatry. But, 13 articles were removed after reading the titles; five after reading the abstracts and two after reading the manuscripts and five of them were duplicates. Finally, 12 papers were reviewed and the pooled prevalence was also computed.RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of depression for the five studies, which had used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), was 6.8% (95%, CI: 6.4-7.3); but, it increased to 11% (95% CI: 10.4-11.5) when three other studies that had used other screening tools were included. Demographic variables such as sex, age, marital status, violence, migration and substance use were associated with depression, but not with economic factors.CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be given to socio-demographic risk factors and intimate partner violence, since they are potential risk factors of depression. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia was also found comparable to that of some high-income countries.

Ayehu A.,Debre Markos University | Kassaw T.,Health Science University | Hailu G.,Health Science University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Currently in Ethiopia, young people's sexual and reproductive health services are limited and there is a growing issue of confidentiality and affordability of these health services. Moreover, the available services provided are not sensitive to the special needs of young people. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess young people's sexual and reproductive health service utilization and its associated factors in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 randomly selected young people using a pre-tested structured questionnaires in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results: The mean age of respondents were 17.80 (+ 2.65) years. About 41% of young people had utilized sexual and reproductive health services. Young people from families of higher family expenditure, lived with mothers, participated in peer education and lived near to a Health Center were more likely to utilize sexual and reproductive health services. Furthermore, those who had a parental discussion on sexual and reproductive health (AOR (95% C.I): 2.23(1.43, 3.46)) and ever had sexual intercourse (AOR (95% C.I): 1.88 (1.30, 2.71)) were more likely to utilize the service than their counterparts. On the other hand, those young people lived with their father and had a primary level of educational attainment was less likely to utilize the service. Conclusion: Utilization of sexual and reproductive health services is low which needs a great attention where; if not intervened, young people might engage in risky sexual activities. Therefore, it needs a concerted effort from all the concerned bodies to improve their service utilization and thereby reduce the burden of young people's disease and disabilities associated with sexual and reproductive health. © 2016 Ayehu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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