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Debre Mark’os, Ethiopia

Shiferaw M.T.,Debre Markos University | Wubshet M.,University of Gondar | Tegabu D.,University of Gondar
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Menstrual problems are the most common gynecologic complaints. The prevalence is highest in the 20 to 24-year-old age group and decreases progressively thereafter. They affect not only the woman, but also family, social and national economics as well. However, Population studies on Menstrual problems and associated factors were very little for university students in Ethiopia.METHODS: Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed at Bahir Dar University from October 14 to 20, 2010, Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique was used and 491 study subjects were randomly selected from faculties. Only 470 respondents had given complete response for the self-administered questionnaire and were included in the final analysis. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 windows. The main statistical method applied was logistic regression (unconditional) and both the classical bivariate and the multivariate analyses were considered.RESULTS: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were 85.1% and 72.8%, respectively. The most contributing factors remained to be statistically significant and independently associated with dysmenorrhea were having menstrual cycle length of 21-35 days (AOR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.71), family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR=3.80, 95%CI: 2.13, 6.78) and circumcision (AOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.001, 3.386) while with premenstrual syndrome were educational status of mothers being certified in certificate and beyond (AOR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.83), living in Peda campus (AOR=2.11, 95%: 1.30, 3.45), having irregular menstruation (AOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.17, 2.99) and family history of premenstrual syndrome (AOR=4.19, 95%CI: 2.60, 6.74).CONCLUSION: The prevalence of menstrual problems among students of Bahir Dar University was very high. Menstrual cycle length, family history of dysmenorrhea and circumcision were the most contributing factors associated with dysmenorrhea while educational status of mothers, regularity of menstruation, and family history of premenstrual syndrome were for premenstrual syndrome. Health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling, should be accessible and persistently provided to the affected students by Bahir Dar University. Maximum effort is needed to eliminate circumcision by all levels and further steps that would enable females to join their college education should be applied.


Bekele D.,Debre Markos University | Belyhun Y.,Health Science University | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Deressa W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: In the Adami Tulu District, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has been the main tool used to control malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of IRS and ITNs control strategies in Aneno Shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of Ethiopia) compared with Kamo Gerbi (supplied ITN only) and Jela Aluto (no IRS and ITNs), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted after heavy rains (October/November, 2006) and during the sporadic rains (April, 2007) in the three kebeles of Adami Tulu District. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film. Monthly collection of adult mosquitoes from October-December 2006 and April-May 2007 and sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the collected mosquitoes were detected. Data related to the knowledge of moDe of malaria transmission and its control measures were collected. Data collected on parasitological and knowledge, attituDe and practice (KAP) surveys were managed and analysed using a statistical computer program SPSS version 13.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of malaria was 8.6% in Jela Aluto, 4.4% in Kamo Gerbi and 1.3% in Aneno Shisho in the two season surveys. The vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles coustani were recorded. However, sporozoite ELISA on mosquito collections detected no infection. The difference in overall malaria prevalence and mosquito density between the three kebeles was significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present study has provided some evidence for the success of ITNs/IRS combined malaria control measures in Aneno Shisho kebele in Adami Tulu District. Therefore, the combined ITNs/IRS malaria control measures must be expanded to cover all kebeles in the District of Ethiopia. © 2012 Bekele et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Asress M.B.,Debre Markos University | Simonovic A.,University of Belgrade | Komarov D.,University of Belgrade | Stupar S.,University of Belgrade
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Over the centuries, energy has been supplied by wood, coal, oil and natural gas, as well as by uranium. All these energy sources are limited and create pollution problems. This has led countries to focus on a sustainable and cleaner energy sources. Wind energy is rapidly emerging as one of the most cost-effective forms of renewable energy with very significant increases in annual installed capacity around the world. In this paper, authors have tried to review the current state of wind power utilization in Ethiopia. First, a brief overview is given on the Ethiopian electric power sector in order to gain insight into the main energy sources of the country and installed electric power capacities. Wind energy potential and current energy policy in Ethiopia were discussed respectively in the subsequent sections. Finally, short reviews of the ongoing and planned wind energy together with other renewable energy projects are given. Ethiopia, a country that relies on hydroelectric plants for the bulk of its power, is now developing significant wind energy capacities. Lack of reliable wind data covering the entire country has been one of the reasons for limited application of wind energy in Ethiopia, but recently studies have shown that Ethiopia has substantial potential to generate electricity from wind, geothermal and hydropower. Considering the substantial wind resource in the country, the government has committed itself to generate power from wind plants by constructing eight wind farms with total capacities of 1116 MW together with a number of hydropower plants over the five year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) period from 2011 to 2015. This development of wind power is a part of the current energy sector policy of the country that aims at a five-fold increase in renewable energy production by the end of 2015. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Amsalu G.,Debre Markos University | Mekonnen Z.,Jimma University | Erko B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: The endemicity of human schistosomiasis has long been established in Ethiopia, and new foci have also been continuously reported. The objective of this study was to determine the transmission and magnitude of schistosomiasis in Hayk area, northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children was conducted for intestinal schistosomiasis between January and March 2010 in two primary schools in Hayk area, northeastern Ethiopia. The stool samples were processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz technique. Malacological survey and observation on human water contact activities were also carried out. Snails were checked for schistosome infection by shedding and lab-bred mice were exposed to the cercariae shed from Biomphalaria pfeifferi en masse. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were harvested from the mice after 45 days of exposure to the schistosome cercariae. Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in Hayk Number 1 and Hayk Number 2 Primary Schools was found to be 45% and 161 epg, respectively. The prevalence of infection had relationship with age and sex. Males were more infected than females. Children in the age group 15-19 years had the highest infection rate, followed by 10-14 and 5-9 years age group. Schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 3.2%. Schistosome infection was also established in laboratory-bred mice and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were harvested. Conclusion: The observed intestinal schistosomiasis with prevalence of 45% among young children, collection of schistosome infected Biomphalaria pfeifferi, and the establishment of lab infection in mice showed that transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis is taking place in the area. Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel should be immediately put in place to reduce morbidity and interrupt transmission of schistosomiasis in the area. © 2015 Amsalu et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Eshetie S.,Debre Markos University | Unakal C.,University of Gondar | Gelaw A.,University of Gondar | Ayelign B.,University of Gondar Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control | Year: 2015

Background: Updates on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance bacterial pathogens is important. This is because the spread of multidrug resistant enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) and recently carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have emerged as a major public health concern in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study is therefore, aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of MDR and CPE among patients with UTIs. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 442 symptomatic UTI suspected patients. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical information and possible risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected and processed to characterize bacterial isolates. Disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates. Carbapenemase producing strains were detected using CHROMagar KPC medium. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Results: Among 442 patients enrolled a total of 183 Enterobacteriaceae were recovered. Of these isolates; 160 (87.4%) were MDRE; the most common isolates were K. pneumoniae and E.coli. Five (2.73%) of the isolates were found to be carbapenemase producers and all of CPE strains were 100% ESBL producers. Significant drug resistances were observed among CPE compared to other MDRE, low resistance rates were noted to ciprofloxacin (20%). Being female (OR 4.46; P=0.018), age (OR 1.08; P=0.001), hospitalization (OR 5.23; P=0.006), and prior antibiotic use (OR 3.98; P=0.04) were associated risk factors for MDRE. Conclusion and recommendation: High rates of MDR (87.4%) were observed among enterobacteriaceae uropathogens; K. pneumoniae and E.coli were the principal MDR isolates. Overall prevalence of CPE was 2.73% and all of these strains were 100% ESBL producer. Attributing risk factors for MDR UTIs were found to be sex (female), age, hospitalization, and history of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce patient hospital stay and maximize rational use of drugs. Additional and vigorous investigation especially on CPE should be encouraged. © 2015 Eshetie et al.

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