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Garedew L.,Gondar University | Ayelet G.,National Veterinary Institute | Yilma R.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Zeleke A.,National Veterinary Institute | Gelaye E.,National Veterinary Institute
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

Bacterial species associated with maedi-visna (MV) infection and occurrence of respiratory disease complex (RDC) in sheep in the cool central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. Of the 80 sheep examined, 61.25% (n= 49) were found to be MV seropositive and 38.75% (n= 31) were MV seronegative. At post-mortem examination, out of the 49 MV seropositive sheep, 75.51% (n= 37) showed pneumonic lesions in the lungs and a further 23 (74.19%) seronegative sheep were also found pneumonic. Overall, 87.5% (n= 70) of the lungs were culture positive and no bacteria were isolated from 12.5% (n= 10) of the lung samples. The majority of the bacterial species were isolated from grossly pneumonic lungs (75.71%, n= 94) and MV seropositive sheep (62.3%, n= 71). Of the total 114 bacteria isolated, 63 were gram-positive and 51 were gram-negative. Almost all gram-negative isolates (96.08%, n= 49) were recovered from pneumonic lungs. The bacterial isolates were classified into 18 genera and 23 species, some of which are known pathogens and some are opportunists. Involvement of diverse microbial groups in the development of RDC in the study area is discussed. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,Wageningen University | Komen H.,Wageningen University | van Arendonk J.A.M.,Wageningen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep-barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected during interviews. The desired gains in the various traits were calculated based on the producers' preferences for traits and were used to weigh traits in the breeding objective using selection-index methodology. This study recognized subsistence producers (producing yearlings) and subsistence + producers (producing and finishing yearlings) within sheep-barley and pastoral systems. Producers' preferences for traits showed that adaptive traits are more important (pastoral system) or as important (sheep-barley system) as production traits. Subsistence producers gave more weight to adaptive traits than did the more market-oriented subsistence + producers. A low correlation (0.31) was found between selection indexes constructed for subsistence and subsistence + producers in the sheep-barley system. This demonstrates that breeding objectives need to be tailored to the specific needs of the different groups of farmers. The results of our study can be used to design sheep breeding programs in Ethiopia and elsewhere with similar production circumstances. We present an approach to incorporate producers' preferred breeding objectives into conventional selection tools. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Molla A.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2013

Soil testing is an important tool for preparing site specific fertilizer recommendations, but it has not been used by smallholder peasant farmers in Ethiopia and has not been profitable for many farmers in developed countries. The objective of this study was to use farmers' knowledge of soil fertility classification so as to develop technically and economically affordable site specific fertilizer rate recommendations. Factorial combinations of four levels of N (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg N ha-1) and three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha-1) were tested in RCBD of four replications at each of relatively fertile and infertile black soil types determined by farmers in each year of 2005 and 2006. Soil sample analyses results and significantly (p<0.05) different crop response interactions of soil fertility types with NP fertilizers levels confirmed that the use of farmers' knowledge for defining soil fertility levels could help develop technically and economically affordable fertilizer rate recommendations specific to soil type fertility levels, agro-ecologies and production systems of Ethiopia. Thus application of N101P10 (200/50 of Urea/DAP) and N130.5P30 (225/150 of Urea/DAP) kg ha-1is recommended for bread wheat production on relatively fertile and infertile black soils, respectively, of the test location. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

Molla A.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2014

Four sowing dates (10,17, 24, & 31 July) were tested over 12 sites in 2007 & 2008 so as to quantify bread wheat productivity and infection levels of wilting disease called Gasash, caused mainly by Fusarium sp on black soils. Broad bed and furrows (BBF) made by BBF maker on the first sowing date and manually made BBF on the later sowing dates were used to drain excess soil water. Grain yield significantly (p<0.05) increased with delaying sowing dates on Mererie soil (relatively heavy black soil) while the response was significantly (p<0.05) quadratic for Bushella soil (relatively light black soil) at Deneba, Enewarie and Goshebado. At these three locations, count of Gasash infected wheat plants per m2 on both soil types of four sites in 2007 linearly decreased while number of fertile wheat spikes per m2, which were free from Gasash, linearly increased with delaying sowing dates at significant probability level (p<0.05). Number of fertile spikes significantly (p<0.05) correlated with grain yield. Thus, sowing of bread wheat on 22-31 July for Mererie soil; and on 16-26 July at which the soil approaches saturation for Bushella soil is advisable on Vertisols at Deneba, Enewarie, Goshebado and similar areas in the highlands of central Ethiopia. © IDOSI Publications, 2014.

Gebre K.T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gebre K.T.,Mekelle University | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2014

A community-based sheep breeding program has been implemented in the highlands of Ethiopia to improve the body weight of Menz sheep. It is important to evaluate the potential consequences of such a breeding strategy on herd dynamics. For this purpose, a dynamic, stochastic herd model was built. The model adopts a system dynamics methodology to study the effect of genetic improvement of body weight on herd dynamics and profitability. The length of the time horizon was 240 months (20 years). The first 120 months served as a baseline scenario, where the fattening of culled breeding rams was practiced. For the second 120 months genetic selection of body weight was introduced considering two scenarios: culled ram and lamb fattening. Results from the model showed a gradual decrease in sheep population size while body weight of the animals improved. The model keeps heavier animals in smaller flocks to match the herd dry matter demand with the available resources. The simulation also demonstrates that breeding for heavier body weight was considerably more profitable than the baseline scenario; and lamb fattening was more profitable than culled ram fattening, as the current practice. Furthermore, voluntary culling may be used to balance herd size with available feed resources. The introduction of a more intensive system that provides more feed resources by resourceful smallholders can be used to achieve higher income without reducing flock size. Further work is however needed to evaluate the model introduced here against field results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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