Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center

Debre Birhan, Ethiopia

Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center

Debre Birhan, Ethiopia
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PubMed | International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center, Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie and Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The study investigated, for cycling sheep, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard P protocol using progestogens priming with intravaginal devices and gonadotropin. In November 2014, 90 adult Menz ewes were assigned to either the P protocol, PGF treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11days apart or a GnRH treatment where the ewes had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. The ewes were naturally mated at the induced oestrus and the following 36days. Plasma progesterone revealed that 92% of the ewes were ovulating before synchronization and all, except one, ovulated in response to the applied treatments. All P ewes exhibited oestrus during the 96-hr period after the end of the treatments in comparison with only 79.3% and 73.3% for PGF and GnRH ewes, respectively (p<.05). Onset and duration of oestrus were affected by the hormonal treatment (p<.05); GnRH ewes showed oestrus earliest and had the shortest oestrous duration. Lambing rate from mating at the induced oestrus was lower for P than for PGF ewes (55.6% and 79.3%, respectively; p<.05). The same trait was also lower for P than for PGF and GnRH ewes (70.4%, 89.7% and 86.7%, respectively; p<.05) following the 36-day mating period. Prostaglandin and GnRH analogue-based protocols are promising alternatives for both controlled natural mating and fixed insemination of Menz sheep after the rainy season when most animals are spontaneously cycling.

Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Getachew T.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Tibbo M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Haile A.,International Livestock Research Institute | Dessie T.,International Livestock Research Institute
Animal | Year: 2011

Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Getachew T.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Haile A.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Rischkowsky B.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 2 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2013

The genetic trends in fitness (inbreeding, fertility and survival) of a closed nucleus flock of Menz sheep under selection during ten years for increased body weight were investigated to evaluate the consequences of selection for body weight on fitness. A mate selection tool was used to optimize in retrospect the actual selection and matings conducted over the project period to assess if the observed genetic gains in body weight could have been achieved with a reduced level of inbreeding. In the actual selection, the genetic trends for yearling weight, fertility of ewes and survival of lambs were 0.81 kg, -0.00026% and 0.016% per generation. The average inbreeding coefficient remained zero for the first few generations and then tended to increase over generations. The genetic gains achieved with the optimized retrospective selection and matings were highly comparable with the observed values, the correlation between the average breeding values of lambs born from the actual and optimized matings over the years being 0.99. However, the level of inbreeding with the optimized mate selections remained zero until late in the years of selection. Our results suggest that an optimal selection strategy that considers both genetic merits and coancestry of mates should be adopted to sustain the Menz sheep breeding program. © 2013 Gizaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Garedew L.,Gondar University | Ayelet G.,National Veterinary Institute | Yilma R.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Zeleke A.,National Veterinary Institute | Gelaye E.,National Veterinary Institute
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

Bacterial species associated with maedi-visna (MV) infection and occurrence of respiratory disease complex (RDC) in sheep in the cool central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. Of the 80 sheep examined, 61.25% (n= 49) were found to be MV seropositive and 38.75% (n= 31) were MV seronegative. At post-mortem examination, out of the 49 MV seropositive sheep, 75.51% (n= 37) showed pneumonic lesions in the lungs and a further 23 (74.19%) seronegative sheep were also found pneumonic. Overall, 87.5% (n= 70) of the lungs were culture positive and no bacteria were isolated from 12.5% (n= 10) of the lung samples. The majority of the bacterial species were isolated from grossly pneumonic lungs (75.71%, n= 94) and MV seropositive sheep (62.3%, n= 71). Of the total 114 bacteria isolated, 63 were gram-positive and 51 were gram-negative. Almost all gram-negative isolates (96.08%, n= 49) were recovered from pneumonic lungs. The bacterial isolates were classified into 18 genera and 23 species, some of which are known pathogens and some are opportunists. Involvement of diverse microbial groups in the development of RDC in the study area is discussed. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Molla A.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2013

Soil testing is an important tool for preparing site specific fertilizer recommendations, but it has not been used by smallholder peasant farmers in Ethiopia and has not been profitable for many farmers in developed countries. The objective of this study was to use farmers' knowledge of soil fertility classification so as to develop technically and economically affordable site specific fertilizer rate recommendations. Factorial combinations of four levels of N (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg N ha-1) and three levels of P (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha-1) were tested in RCBD of four replications at each of relatively fertile and infertile black soil types determined by farmers in each year of 2005 and 2006. Soil sample analyses results and significantly (p<0.05) different crop response interactions of soil fertility types with NP fertilizers levels confirmed that the use of farmers' knowledge for defining soil fertility levels could help develop technically and economically affordable fertilizer rate recommendations specific to soil type fertility levels, agro-ecologies and production systems of Ethiopia. Thus application of N101P10 (200/50 of Urea/DAP) and N130.5P30 (225/150 of Urea/DAP) kg ha-1is recommended for bread wheat production on relatively fertile and infertile black soils, respectively, of the test location. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,Wageningen University | Komen H.,Wageningen University | van Arendonk J.A.M.,Wageningen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep-barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected during interviews. The desired gains in the various traits were calculated based on the producers' preferences for traits and were used to weigh traits in the breeding objective using selection-index methodology. This study recognized subsistence producers (producing yearlings) and subsistence + producers (producing and finishing yearlings) within sheep-barley and pastoral systems. Producers' preferences for traits showed that adaptive traits are more important (pastoral system) or as important (sheep-barley system) as production traits. Subsistence producers gave more weight to adaptive traits than did the more market-oriented subsistence + producers. A low correlation (0.31) was found between selection indexes constructed for subsistence and subsistence + producers in the sheep-barley system. This demonstrates that breeding objectives need to be tailored to the specific needs of the different groups of farmers. The results of our study can be used to design sheep breeding programs in Ethiopia and elsewhere with similar production circumstances. We present an approach to incorporate producers' preferred breeding objectives into conventional selection tools. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Molla A.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2014

Four sowing dates (10,17, 24, & 31 July) were tested over 12 sites in 2007 & 2008 so as to quantify bread wheat productivity and infection levels of wilting disease called Gasash, caused mainly by Fusarium sp on black soils. Broad bed and furrows (BBF) made by BBF maker on the first sowing date and manually made BBF on the later sowing dates were used to drain excess soil water. Grain yield significantly (p<0.05) increased with delaying sowing dates on Mererie soil (relatively heavy black soil) while the response was significantly (p<0.05) quadratic for Bushella soil (relatively light black soil) at Deneba, Enewarie and Goshebado. At these three locations, count of Gasash infected wheat plants per m2 on both soil types of four sites in 2007 linearly decreased while number of fertile wheat spikes per m2, which were free from Gasash, linearly increased with delaying sowing dates at significant probability level (p<0.05). Number of fertile spikes significantly (p<0.05) correlated with grain yield. Thus, sowing of bread wheat on 22-31 July for Mererie soil; and on 16-26 July at which the soil approaches saturation for Bushella soil is advisable on Vertisols at Deneba, Enewarie, Goshebado and similar areas in the highlands of central Ethiopia. © IDOSI Publications, 2014.

Molla A.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Muhie K.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2011

Research on tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) in the hot to warm moist valleys of North Shewa of the Amhara regional state has been meager. However, tef is the second most important cereal crop in area coverage in these sub agro-ecologies. Cereal Crops Research Program of Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center launched informal survey in 2006 while the crops were in the field so as to identify the major tef based cropping systems and production practices for prioritizing research needs. The most important cropping system identified was tef based intercropping. A base crop was found intercropped with sesame, safflower, sesame-safflower, sorghum, gomenzer (Brasica carinata), and sunflower (in descending order of importance). The relative area coverage of sole cropped tef varied from about 4 - 36%. The component crops intercropped with tef were found to be largely affected by soil type. Seed rates of sesame and safflower as intercrop with tef are determined by the experience of individual farmer on soil type, depth and fertility levels. Other cultural practices also vary according to soil types, onset and duration of rainfall. This paper also outlines priority research directions of tef and its intercrop components. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Gebre K.T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gebre K.T.,Mekelle University | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2014

A community-based sheep breeding program has been implemented in the highlands of Ethiopia to improve the body weight of Menz sheep. It is important to evaluate the potential consequences of such a breeding strategy on herd dynamics. For this purpose, a dynamic, stochastic herd model was built. The model adopts a system dynamics methodology to study the effect of genetic improvement of body weight on herd dynamics and profitability. The length of the time horizon was 240 months (20 years). The first 120 months served as a baseline scenario, where the fattening of culled breeding rams was practiced. For the second 120 months genetic selection of body weight was introduced considering two scenarios: culled ram and lamb fattening. Results from the model showed a gradual decrease in sheep population size while body weight of the animals improved. The model keeps heavier animals in smaller flocks to match the herd dry matter demand with the available resources. The simulation also demonstrates that breeding for heavier body weight was considerably more profitable than the baseline scenario; and lamb fattening was more profitable than culled ram fattening, as the current practice. Furthermore, voluntary culling may be used to balance herd size with available feed resources. The introduction of a more intensive system that provides more feed resources by resourceful smallholders can be used to achieve higher income without reducing flock size. Further work is however needed to evaluate the model introduced here against field results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gizaw S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,International Livestock Research Institute | Getachew T.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | Goshme S.,Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

We evaluated the efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program for Menz sheep of Ethiopia under smallholder farming system. The design of the program involved organizing villagers in a cooperative breeding group to implement selective breeding of their sheep. The program was jump-started through a one-time provision of elite rams from a central nucleus flock, but subsequent replacement rams were selected from within the village flocks. We also evaluated body weight trends in a village where cooperative breeding was not implemented and individual farmers managed their flocks under traditional breeding practices. Under traditional breeding practices, genetic progress over 8 years either stagnated or declined in all the weights recorded. In the cooperative villages, selection differentials of 2.44 and 2.45 kg were achieved in 2010 and 2011 selection seasons, respectively. Birth weight, 3-month weight and 6-month weight increased, respectively, by 0.49, 2.29 and 2.46 kg in the third-generation lambs over the base generation. Improved rams supplied from the central nucleus flock gave an initial genetic lift of 14.4% in the 6-month weight. This was higher than the gain achieved from selection in the village flocks, which was 5.2%. Our results showed that village-based genetic improvement in body weights under smallholder conditions could be feasible if appropriate designs are adopted and that commencing with elite central nucleus rams help jump-start village-based programs. Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2013.

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