Ogato T.,Debre Berhan University |
Kifle D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Fetahi T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Sitotaw B.,Hawassa University
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2014
The cost of nutrient media is the major challenge for biomass production of Spirulina. Although much effort has been made to use enriched seawater for the cultivation of this microalga, little attention has been given to the potential of water of soda lakes. In this study, growth (μ, day-1) and biomass production (B) of Arthrospira fusiformis cultivated using waters of the soda lakes Chitu and Shala with or without supplementation were evaluated. Comparable μ and B values were achieved in both Lake Chitu water-based media (CBM) and Lake Shala water-based media (SBM), with slightly higher values in the latter. Both CBM and SBM supplemented with the standard Spirulina medium (SM) by 25 % and 50 % supported considerably higher μ and B. The pH and salinity of the cultures showed significant variations (P < 0.05) among the media and had considerable effect on μ and B. The observed higher μ and B were probably associated with the reduction in pH and salinity of the supplemented media due to addition of bicarbonate-carbonates and dilution, and provision of the limiting nutrient nitrogen. The higher μ and B in SBM may have resulted from some of their aggregate chemical parameters, which were closer to those in the SM, and abundant PO4-P. This seems to suggest that Lake Shala water is more conducive to Arthrospira. We contend that 25 % and 50 % supplemented Lake Shala water can be preferably used to produce Arthrospira biomass, thereby reducing the cost of nutrients by 75 % and 50 %, respectively. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Berhane A.,Debre Berhan University |
Enquselassie F.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2015
Background: Information from the patient’s point of view is essential in policy and clinical decisions. Prioritizing what patients value, need, and prefer in various aspects of a health program can be helpful in evaluating and designing hospital health care services. Objective: To examine patients’ preference for attributes related to health care services and to ascertain the relative impact of attributes at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia. Methods: A stated-preference discrete choice experiment survey was performed in multistage, stratified, and systematic sampling of patients who visited the hospitals. Attributes were selected based on a literature review of the most important characteristics of hospital health care service and reviewed and validated with inputs from patients and researchers in the field. Attributes included in the study were waiting time, physician communication, nursing communication, drug availability, continuity of care, and diagnostic facilities. A random-effects probit model was used to perform the analysis. Results: One thousand and five respondents who received care in the outpatient and inpatient departments participated in the study. All attributes included in the study affected the choice of hospital. Patients were willing to wait up to 3.3 hours and 2.7 hours to get full drugs in the hospital and good nursing communication, respectively. The interaction terms indicate that preferences differ with the variables sex, occupation, and type of hospital. Patients expressed clear preferences in a decreasing order of all the significant attribute levels: a lot of diagnostic facilities, full drug availability, continuity of care, good nursing communication, partial drug availability, good physician communication, and shorter waiting time for the consultation. Conclusion: Different hospital care attributes had a significant and different influence on patients’ choice of hospital. The study informs about patients’ preferences and the trade-offs among different possible process-related attributes. Decision makers should focus on patient preferences and consider selected attributes when designating hospital services, and hence to maximize patient satisfaction. © 2015 Berhane and Enquselassie.
Ogato T.,Debre Berhan University |
Kifle D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014
Although variability of Arthrospira morphology, widely used in taxonomy and other valuable aspects, as a response to changes in environmental variables has been studied in laboratory cultures, little is known about such responses in the natural habitats. In this study, Arthrospira fusiformis was characterized morphologically in relation to selected environmental variables in the natural ecosystem. Three distinct morphotypes, tightly coiled (H-type), spiral or loosely coiled (S-type), and intermediately coiled (C-type) were observed and described. They varied largely in the degree of coiling, trichome and helix dimensions, coils, shape of trichome end and trichome abundance. The H-type was the most dominant (50%) followed by the S-type (40%). The dominance of H-type and tightening of helix pitch were strongly associated with NO3 - and HCO3 - deficiencies, and high levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature of the lake. The abundance of S-type was more strongly but negatively related to the high salinity of the lake, probably indicating that decreasing salinity may favor the S-type. In conclusion, the variability in abundance and morphology seem to suggest that A. fusiformis could show morphological modifications in response to environmental stresses in their natural soda lakes, resulting in occurrence of various morphotypes of the same species. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Assessment of prevalence and determinants of occupational exposure to HIV infection among healthcare workers in selected health institutions in debre berhan town, north shoa zone, amhara region, ethiopia, 2014
Aynalem Tesfay F.,Debre Berhan University |
Dejenie Habtewold T.,Debre Berhan University
AIDS Research and Treatment | Year: 2014
Introduction. Health care workers are exposed to different kinds of occupational hazards due to their day to day activities. The most common occupational exposure like body fluids is a potential risk of transmission of blood-borne infection like human immunodeficiency virus.Objective. To assess the prevalence and determinants of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus infection.Methods and Materials. A descriptive cross-sectional institution based study was conducted in selected four health institutions in Debre Berhan town. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviewer administered questionnaire. The frequency distribution of dependent and independent variables was worked out and presented using frequency table, graph, and chart.Result. The overall prevalence of occupational exposure of the health care workers was found to be 88.6% (n = 187) in the past 12 months. Contact to potentially infectious body fluids accounts for the largest proportion (56.7%) followed by needle stick injury (31.5%) and glove breakage (28.8%).Conclusion. In this study majority (88.6%) of the health care workers had a risky occupational hazard that exposed them to human immunodeficiency virus infection during the past 12 months. The statistically significant determinant factors were professional status, working room, and time of personal protective equipment usage. © 2014 Filmawit Aynalem Tesfay and Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold.
Kolola T.,Debre Berhan University |
Gezahegn T.,Debre Berhan University |
Addisie M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Background Even though health care seeking interventions potentially reduce child mortality from easily treatable diseases, significant numbers of children die without ever reaching a health facility or due to delays in seeking care in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeldu District from January to February 2011. A systematic sampling method was used for sample selection. Data were collected from 422 caregivers with under-five children who experienced diseases within six weeks before the survey. Interviewer administered structured and pre-tested questionnaire which were used to collect data. Data entry and cleaning were carried out using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the magnitude of health care seeking behavior. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors. Results A total of 422 caregivers of under-five children were participated in the study giving an overall response rate of 97.5%. Three hundred fifteen (74.6%) children sought care from health facilities for all conditions. However, only 55.4% of them were taken to health facilities as first source treatment during their illness and prompt care was also very low (13.7%). Marital status of the caregivers (AOR = 2.84; 95%CI: 1.62-4.98), number of symptoms experienced by the child (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.24-3.36) and perceived severity of the illness (AOR = 3.20; 95%CI: 1.96-5.22) were predictors of health care seeking behavior. Conclusion Health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses was delayed and decision to seek care from health facilities was influenced by worsening of the illnesses. Thus, community level promotion of prompt health care seeking is essential to enhance the health care seeking behavior for child hood illnesses in the locality. © 2016 Kolola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Dejenie Habtewold T.,Debre Berhan University |
Radie Y.T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Sharew N.T.,Debre Berhan University
Depression Research and Treatment | Year: 2015
Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients' depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9). Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75) fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32) for moderate depression, 2.7% (7) for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4) for severe depression. But 45.8% (121) of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%. © 2015 Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold et al.
Mohammed A.,Debre Berhan University |
Woldeyohannes D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Feleke A.,Health Science University |
Megabiaw B.,Health Science University
Reproductive Health | Year: 2014
Background: Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15-49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results: Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods 62.9%, followed by intrauterine device 16.8%, pills 14%, norplant 4.3%, male condom 1.2% and female sterilization 0.8%. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84, husband approve AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80, couple's discussion about family planning issues AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86. Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion: Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple's discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning. © 2014 Mohammed et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Mattihalli C.,Debre Berhan University
2012 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks, CECNet 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012
This paper presents design & realization of Serial Front Panel Data Port (SFPDP) protocol for high speed data transfer. High-speed data transfer finds application in most modern day communication systems. This design has been mainly done for data transfer in radar systems but can be programmed and used for variety of applications involving high-speed data transfer. The design follows a systematic approach with design of SFPDP protocol and implementation on FPGA and explains all these stages of design in detail. The design can be programmed to work at different speeds as required by different systems and thus can be used in variety of systems involving high-speed data transfers. The efficient use of customized IP cores and resources of FPGA delivers high level of performance and area efficiency. © 2012 IEEE.
Dessalegn M.,Debre Berhan University |
Kumie A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Tefera W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development | Year: 2012
Background: Diarrheal disease is widely recognized as a major cause of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. There exist variations in explanatory variables of diarrhea depending on the context of the study. Objective: To examine the effects of selected environmental, socio-economic and behavioral factors on childhood diarrhea in Mecha District, West Gojjam, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in February 2009. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select 768 households that had at least one under-five child. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of childhood diarrhea. Results: The prevalence of diarrhea among mothers and under-five children was 8.2% and 18.0%, respectively. Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5-19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.9-9.8), availability of latrine facility (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4), duration of breast feeding (AOR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-7.3), and age of the child (AOR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3-5.9) had a significant association. Conclusion: From this study, variation in the level of diarrheal morbidity is well explained by maternal factors and presence of latrine facility. Educating mothers focusing on sustained behavioral changes in the use of latrine integrated with personal hygiene is an important intervention for the prevention and control of diarrhea among children.
Tamire G.,Debre Berhan University |
Mengistou S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013
The species composition, distribution and diversity of macrophytes in Lake Ziway were determined at the end of dry and wet seasons along nine littoral sites during 2010 using a belt transect method. Some physicochemical parameters were also measured. Fourteen macrophyte species were identified with low species diversity for the lake (H' value of 1.805). The macrophyte species composition of the lake has undergone many changes during the last few decades. Arundo donax, which was never reported earlier, attained the highest relative density (30.7%) and frequency (30.5%) in this study, followed by Echinochloa colona, Potamogeton schweinfurthii, Cyperus articulatus, Typha latifolia and Cyperus papyrus. The average densities of A.donax, C.articulatus, E.colona and Pistia stratiotes were positively correlated with nutrients, whereas the density of the other species had negative correlation with physicochemical variables (CCA). Generally, the present macrophyte composition and abundance indicates healthy ecological condition of the lake. But if nutrient levels continue to increase and water levels continue to decline, we expect further changes in macrophyte composition and especially a shift towards invasive floating species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.