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Itapetininga, Brazil

Andrade I.V.O.,UESB | Pires A.J.V.,DTRA | de Carvalho G.G.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Veloso C.M.,DTRA | Bonomo P.,DEBI
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The experiment was conducted to determine losses by gases and effluent, fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage containing cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal. It was used a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme, with three additives evaluated in four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30% of natural matter), each one with five repetitions. The material was ensiled in PVC silos for 60 days. After opening of the silos, weightings were carried out for determination of losses through the quantification of effluent production and also by losses by gases. Samples were collected for subsequent analyses of ammonia nitrogen content and pH values, as well as the chemical-bromatological composition. The additive addition caused an increase in the dry matter contents and cocoa meal was the most efficient additive to control effluent and gas losses. The addition of cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal assured high recovery rates of dry matter, while cassava meal and cocoa meal favored the reduction of pH values and ammonia nitrogen contents, respectively, resulting in silages fermentation profile improvement. The silages containing cassava meal presented greater total digestible nutrients contents and they assured lower neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin contents. Addition of cocoa meal to elephant grass at the moment of the ensilage contributed to increase total nitrogen content, however it increases insoluble nitrogen contents in neutral detergent and acid detergent. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source


The experiment was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen potential, the losses of deriving the fermentative process, nutritional value, the fractioning of carbohydrates and protein the elephant grass silage wilted or not containing castor bean meal. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and with four replications: elephant grass wilted; elephant not wilted; elephant grass more castor bean meal (6%); elephant grass more castor bean meal (12%) and elephant grass more castor bean meal (18%), the coproduct was added with base on natural matter. We adopted a specific mass of 600 kg/m3. The silage containing 18% castor bean meal showed higher (P<0.05) pH (4.8). High level of ammoniacal nitrogen was observed in the silage grass not wilted (12.8% N-total). The castor bean meal was effective in reducing (P<0.05) losses to by effluent and total, providing a higher rate of recovery of dry matter. Also, was efficient in increasing (P<0.05) the levels of DM, ash, crude protein e lignin. Already for organic matter, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, total digestible nutrients, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and total carbohydrate decreased (P<0.05) with increasing doses of the castor bean meal. For the carbohydrate fractioning, there was no difference (P>0.05) among the silages with additives for fractions A+B1, B2 and C. For the protein fractioning, the fractions A and C decreased (P<0.05) with increase of the inclusion of castor bean meal, differently, of the fraction B1+B2 which increased. The castor bean stands out as a good additive in silage of elephant grass to reduce moisture and improve the fermentation characteristics of silages also was effective in increasing the protein value of silages, especially when using the dose 18%. Source


Almeida P.J.P.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Zootecnia | Pereira M.L.A.,DEBI | da Silva F.F.,DTRA | dos Santos A.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Zootecnia | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation) on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twentyfour uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW) 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack) Daudy) were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source


Andrade I.V.O.,UESB | Pires A.J.V.,DTRA | de Carvalho G.G.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Veloso C.M.,DTRA | Bonomo P.,DEBI
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The experiment was conducted to determine fractioning of carbohydrate and protein of elephantgrass silage containing cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme, composed of three byproducts added to elephantgrass at four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30% of natural matter), each one with five repetitions. The material was ensiled in PVC silos, which remained closed for 60 days. Cassava meal contributed to reduce the content of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, presenting the greatest values for protein A fraction and for the B1+B2 fraction contents. However, cocoa meal provided increment of C fraction, significantly increasing the content of unavailable protein for ruminal microorganisms. The addition of cassava meal, followed by coffee hulls provided the greatest total carbohydrate content in all the levels used. The A+B1 carbohydrate fractions increased according to the levels of added by-products, and coffee hulls was responsible for the lowest content of this fraction in the silages. Cocoa meal favors increase of nitrogenous fractions, but increase of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, C fraction, of silages produced with this additive is a limiting factor. Cassava meal increase content of non-fibrous carbohydrates in the silage, while coffee hull and cocoa meal increase non-digestible fraction of carbohydrates. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source


Silva R.R.,DEBI | do Prado I.N.,State University of Maringa | da Silva F.F.,DTRA | de Almeida V.V.S.,Federal University of Vicosa | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective this study was to evaluate the diurnal ingestive behavior of Nellore steers on Brachiaria grass pasture submitted to protein and energy supplementation. It was used 40 Nellore steers, at initial weight of 373.7 ± 14.9 kg, and at 26 months of age, distributed in four levels of supplementation:mineral mixture, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of body weight of energy and protein supplementation. The animals were visually observed by two 12-hour periods from 6:00 a.m. to 06:00 p.m. Grazing, ruminating and idle times had a quadratic effect and the trough time had a linear increase effect. The total dry matter intakes were not affected by the supplementation levels. Total consumption of dry matter from pasture and all the variables related to neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased linearly. The number of chews per bolus linearly decreased. The number of grazing periods and time for feed period increased linearly. The time for grazing period decreased linearly. The number of ruminating periods, number of idle periods and time for rumination period suffered a quadratic effect. The number of trough periods suffered a cubical effect. Supplementation compromises the variables related to diurnal ingestive behavior, not only because of the quantity of ingested food but also because of its composition and because of the roughage:concentrate ratio, therefore, attention on meal balance is required. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

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