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Melbourne, Australia

Deakin University is an Australian public university with approximately 47,000 higher education students in 2014. Established in 1974, the University was named after the leader of the Australian federation movement and the nation's second Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin. It has campuses in Geelong, Warrnambool and Burwood, Melbourne in the state of Victoria. Current Vice-Chancellor is Jane den Hollander.Deakin University receives more than A$600 million in operating revenue annually, and controls more than A$1.3 billion in assets. It received more than A$35 million in research income in 2011 and had 1,493 research students in 2012. In 2009, its academics authored 33 books, 233 refereed conference papers, and 705 refereed journal papers. Wikipedia.

To examine the association between individual- and neighborhood-level disadvantage and self-reported arthritis. We used data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2007 among 10,757 men and women ages 40-65 years, selected from 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia using a stratified 2-stage cluster design. Data were collected using a mail survey (68.5% response). Neighborhood disadvantage was measured using a census-based composite index, and individual disadvantage was measured using self-reported education, household income, and occupation. Arthritis was indicated by self-report. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The overall rate of self-reported arthritis was 23% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 22-24). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, arthritis prevalence was greatest for women (odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.7) and in those ages 60-65 years (OR 4.4, 95% CI 3.7-5.2), those with a diploma/associate diploma (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), those who were permanently unable to work (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.1-5.3), and those with a household income <$25,999 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.7-2.6). Independent of individual-level factors, residents of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods were 42% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7) more likely than those in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods to self-report arthritis. Cross-level interactions between neighborhood disadvantage and education, occupation, and household income were not significant. Arthritis prevalence is greater in more socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. These are the first multilevel data to examine the relationship between individual- and neighborhood-level disadvantage upon arthritis and have important implications for policy, health promotion, and other intervention strategies designed to reduce the rates of arthritis, indicating that intervention efforts may need to focus on both people and places. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology. Source

Sharma S.S.,Deakin University
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

This study investigates the determinants of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) for a global panel consisting of 69 countries using a dynamic panel data model. To make the panel data analysis more homogenous, we also investigate the determinants of CO2 emissions for a number of sub-panels. These sub-panels are constructed based on the income level of countries. In this way, we end up with three income panels; namely, high income, middle income, and low income panels. The time component of our dataset is 1985-2005 inclusive. Our main findings are that trade openness, per capita GDP, and energy consumption, proxied by per capita electric power consumption and per capita total primary energy consumption, have positive effects on CO2 emissions. Urbanisation is found to have a negative impact on CO2 emissions in high income, middle income, and low income panels. For the global panel, only GDP per capita and per capita total primary energy consumption are found to be statistically significant determinants of CO2 emission, while urbanisation, trade openness, and per capita electric power consumption have negative effects on the CO2 emissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ainsworth S.,University of Nottingham | Prain V.,La Trobe University | Tytler R.,Deakin University
Science | Year: 2011

Emerging research suggests drawing should be explicitly recognized as a key element in science education. Source

Lifestyle behaviours, such as healthy diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, are key elements of healthy ageing and important modifiable risk factors in the prevention of chronic diseases. Little is known about the relationship between these behaviours in older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and sitting time (ST), and their association with self-rated health in older adults. This cross-sectional study comprised 3,644 older adults (48% men) aged 55-65 years, who participated in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life ("WELL") study. Respondents completed a postal survey about their health and their eating and physical activity behaviours in 2010 (38% response rate). Spearman's coefficient (rho) was used to evaluate the relationship between F&V intake, LTPA and ST. Their individual and shared associations with self-rated health were examined using ordinal logistic regression models, stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders (BMI, smoking, long-term illness and socio-demographic characteristics). The correlations between F&V intake, LTPA and ST were low. F&V intake and LTPA were positively associated with self-rated health. Each additional serving of F&V or MET-hour of LTPA were associated with approximately 10% higher likelihood of reporting health as good or better among women and men. The association between ST and self-rated health was not significant in the multivariate analysis. A significant interaction was found (ST*F&V intake). The effect of F&V intake on self-rated health increased with increasing ST in women, whereas the effect decreased with increasing ST in men. This study contributes to the scarce literature related to lifestyle behaviours and their association with health indicators among older adults. The findings suggest that a modest increase in F&V intake, or LTPA could have a marked effect on the health of older adults. Further research is needed to fully understand the correlates and determinants of lifestyle behaviours, particularly sitting time, in this age group. Source

Endler J.A.,Deakin University
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

The analysis of colour pattern geometry is not as well advanced as the analysis of colour, although this reflects a lack of an analytical framework. The present study proposes an approach based on a consideration of which colours are adjacent to each other. Both vertebrate and invertebrate eyes do not take static images of the world but move across the field of view. As a consequence, the eye takes transects across the field of view responding to the colours and luminances within patches and to the colour and/or luminance transitions between patches. The framework and methods suggested here are based upon transects across colour patterns and make it possible to estimate colour pattern parameters that capture not only the relative areas of each patch class, but also the relative frequencies of colour/luminance transitions or adjacency. This allows tests of new hypotheses about colour patterns at the same time as including colour, pattern, and texture. Eleven groups of predictions are made with respect to the often conflicting needs of communication with conspecifics, avoiding predation, and finding food. New phenomena may be discovered as a result of these methods and predictions. For example, certain colour transitions may be used for species recognition even though the same colours are used by all species. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London. Source

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