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Brussels, Belgium

Discart V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bilad M.R.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Nevel S.,Ghent University | Boon N.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Ultrafiltration (UF) is widely used for water purification, but membrane fouling remains an important issue. In this study, the role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), recently put forward as possible major foulants, was investigated in the fouling process of a full-scale UF installation. Algae, TEPs and other parameters in the UF feed were monitored and correlated during an 8. months long full-scale operation. Results revealed a complex fouling mechanism involving interactions mainly between algae, Fe (flocculant) and TEPs. Algae related parameters rather that TEP concentrations correlated stronger with irreversible fouling rates, suggesting that the overall role of TEPs in membrane fouling seems limited for this application. Finally, membrane autopsy showed the formation of a thick Fe-rich fouling layer on top of the fouled membranes, which could mostly be removed via cleaning-in-place. It remained partly irremovable in the form of some Fe-organic complexes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cromphout J.,De Watergroep | Goethals S.,De Watergroep | Verdickt L.,De Watergroep
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

De Watergroep, a Flemish drinking water utility, aims to optimize the ozonation process at the Kluizen surface waterworks in order to obtain sufficient inactivation of pathogenic micro-organisms while minimizing the formation of bromate. In literature, the inactivation of micro-organisms is described as a first order process in ozone exposure (ozone concentration multiplied by exposure time or CT value). In the full-scale plant, the ozone exposure was determined at different temperatures and ozone doses, and an empirical relation between ozone exposure, ozone dose and temperature was derived. Based on the results, the optimum ozone dose required to obtain a Log 2 removal of viruses and a Log 1 removal of Giardia was determined as a function of temperature. Bromate formation was found to be dependent on the ozone dose rather than on the CT value. Therefore, an empirical relation between bromate formation, ozone dose and temperature was established. Bromate formation was found to be far below the legal standard of 10 μg/L when the optimum ozone dose, required to achieve the disinfection goals for viruses and Giardia, is applied.© IWA Publishing 2013 Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. Source


Six S.,De Watergroep | Diez T.,De Watergroep | Van Limbergen B.,De Watergroep | Keustermans L.,De Watergroep
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2015

Around 70% of the drinking water produced by De Watergroep (a Belgian public water company) is extracted from 83 groundwater pumping sites. To control the risks that endanger the drinking water supply and for the groundwater extracted to be as pure as possible, a risk-based approach for the protection of the catchment areas is developed, as part of the water safety plans. The approach consists of three steps: first, the compilation of a site-specific source file, second, the performance of a risk analysis for every catchment area, and third, the development of a monitoring strategy and action plans. The general goals are to lower the level of purification and to enhance the sustainability of groundwater extraction. The listed benefits make it worthwhile to implement this approach, despite the uncertainties. © 2015 IWA Publishing. Source

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