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Giordanetto F.,De Shaw Research | Tyrchan C.,Astrazeneca | Ulander J.,Astrazeneca
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2017

Design strategies centered on intramolecular hydrogen bonds are sometime used in drug discovery, but their general applicability has not been addressed beyond scattered examples or circumstantial evidence. A total of 1053 matched molecular pairs where only one of the two molecules is able to form an intramolecular hydrogen bond via monatomic transformations have been identified across the ChEMBL database. These pairs were used to investigate the effect of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on biological activity. While cases of extreme, conflicting variation of effect emerge, the mean biological activity difference for a pair is close to zero and does not exceed ±0.5 log biological activity for over 50% of the analyzed sample. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


Ferrao R.,Harvard University | Ferrao R.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Zhou H.,Cleveland Clinic | Shan Y.,De Shaw Research | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

trans-autophosphorylation is among the most prevalent means of protein kinase activation, yet its molecular basis is poorly defined. In Toll-like receptor andinterleukin-1 receptor signaling pathways, the kinase IRAK4 is recruited to the membrane-proximal adaptor MyD88 through death domain (DD) interactions, forming the oligomeric Myddosome and mediating NF-κB activation. Here we show that unphosphorylated IRAK4 dimerizes in solution with a KD of 2.5μM and that Myddosome assembly greatly enhances IRAK4 kinase domain (KD) autophosphorylation at sub-KD concentrations. The crystal structure of the unphosphorylated IRAK4KD dimer captures a conformation that appears to represent the actual trans-autophosphorylation reaction, with the activation loop phosphosite of one IRAK4 monomer precisely positioned for phosphotransfer by its partner. We show that dimerization is crucial for IRAK4 autophosphorylation invitro and ligand-dependent signaling in cells. These studies identify a mechanism for oligomerization-driven allosteric autoactivation of IRAK4 that may be general to other kinases activated by autophosphorylation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Wriggers W.,Cornell University | Wriggers W.,De Shaw Research
Biophysical Reviews | Year: 2010

Situs is a modular and widely used software package for the integration of biophysical data across the spatial resolution scales. It has been developed over the last decade with a focus on bridging the resolution gap between atomic structures, coarse-grained models, and volumetric data from low-resolution biophysical origins, such as electron microscopy, tomography, or small-angle scattering. Structural models can be created and refined with various flexible and rigid body docking strategies. The software consists of multiple, stand-alone programs for the format conversion, analysis, visualization, manipulation, and assembly of 3D data sets. The programs have been ported to numerous platforms in both serial and shared memory parallel architectures and can be combined in various ways for specific modeling applications. The modular design facilitates the updating of individual programs and the development of novel application workflows. This review provides an overview of the Situs package as it exists today with an emphasis on functionality and workflows supported by version 2. 5. © 2009 The Author(s).


Bandaranayake R.M.,New York University | Ungureanu D.,University of Tampere | Shan Y.,De Shaw Research | Shaw D.E.,De Shaw Research | And 3 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The protein tyrosine kinase JAK2 mediates signaling through numerous cytokine receptors. JAK2 possesses a pseudokinase domain (JH2) and a tyrosine kinase domain (JH1). Through unknown mechanisms, JH2 regulates the catalytic activity of JH1, and hyperactivating mutations in the JH2 region of human JAK2 cause myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We showed previously that JAK2 JH2 is, in fact, catalytically active. Here we present crystal structures of human JAK2 JH2, including both wild type and the most prevalent MPN mutant, V617F. The structures reveal that JH2 adopts the fold of a prototypical protein kinase but binds Mg-ATP noncanonically. The structural and biochemical data indicate that the V617F mutation rigidifies α-helix C in the N lobe of JH2, facilitating trans-phosphorylation of JH1. The crystal structures of JH2 afford new opportunities for the design of novel JAK2 therapeutics targeting MPNs. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Nygaard R.,Stanford University | Zou Y.,Stanford University | Dror R.O.,De Shaw Research | Mildorf T.J.,De Shaw Research | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate diverse signaling pathways, often in a ligand-specific manner. The full range of functionally relevant GPCR conformations is poorly understood. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the conformational dynamics of the transmembrane core of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR. We labeled β2AR with 13CH3ε- methionine and obtained HSQC spectra of unliganded receptor as well as receptor bound to an inverse agonist, an agonist, and a G-protein-mimetic nanobody. These studies provide evidence for conformational states not observed in crystal structures, as well as substantial conformational heterogeneity in agonist- and inverse-agonist-bound preparations. They also show that for β 2AR, unlike rhodopsin, an agonist alone does not stabilize a fully active conformation, suggesting that the conformational link between the agonist-binding pocket and the G-protein-coupling surface is not rigid. The observed heterogeneity may be important for β2AR's ability to engage multiple signaling and regulatory proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Raval A.,De Shaw Research | Piana S.,De Shaw Research | Eastwood M.P.,De Shaw Research | Dror R.O.,De Shaw Research | And 2 more authors.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Accurate computational prediction of protein structure represents a longstanding challenge in molecular biology and structure-based drug design. Although homology modeling techniques are widely used to produce low-resolution models, refining these models to high resolution has proven difficult. With long enough simulations and sufficiently accurate force fields, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations should in principle allow such refinement, but efforts to refine homology models using MD have for the most part yielded disappointing results. It has thus far been unclear whether MD-based refinement is limited primarily by accessible simulation timescales, force field accuracy, or both. Here, we examine MD as a technique for homology model refinement using all-atom simulations, each at least 100 μs long-more than 100 times longer than previous refinement simulations-and a physics-based force field that was recently shown to successfully fold a structurally diverse set of fast-folding proteins. In MD simulations of 24 proteins chosen from the refinement category of recent Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) experiments, we find that in most cases, simulations initiated from homology models drift away from the native structure. Comparison with simulations initiated from the native structure suggests that force field accuracy is the primary factor limiting MD-based refinement. This problem can be mitigated to some extent by restricting sampling to the neighborhood of the initial model, leading to structural improvement that, while limited, is roughly comparable to the leading alternative methods. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shan Y.,De Shaw Research | Eastwood M.P.,De Shaw Research | Zhang X.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Kim E.T.,De Shaw Research | And 6 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2012

The mutation and overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are associated with the development of a variety of cancers, making this prototypical dimerization-activated receptor tyrosine kinase a prominent target of cancer drugs. Using long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the N lobe dimerization interface of the wild-type EGFR kinase domain is intrinsically disordered and that it becomes ordered only upon dimerization. Our simulations suggest, moreover, that some cancer-linked mutations distal to the dimerization interface, particularly the widespread L834R mutation (also referred to as L858R), facilitate EGFR dimerization by suppressing this local disorder. Corroborating these findings, our biophysical experiments and kinase enzymatic assays indicate that the L834R mutation causes abnormally high activity primarily by promoting EGFR dimerization rather than by allowing activation without dimerization. We also find that phosphorylation of EGFR kinase domain at Tyr845 may suppress the intrinsic disorder, suggesting a molecular mechanism for autonomous EGFR signaling. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Taube A.G.,Sandia National Laboratories | Taube A.G.,De Shaw Research
Molecular Physics | Year: 2010

The dominant method of small molecule quantum chemistry over the last twenty years is CCSD(T). Despite this success, RHF-based CCSD(T) fails for systems away from equilibrium. Work over the last ten years has lead to modifications of CCSD(T) that improve the description of bond breaking. These new methods include CCSD(T), CCSD(2)T, CCSD(2) and CR-CC(2,3), which are new perturbative corrections to single-reference CCSD. We present a unified derivation of these methods and compare them at the level of formal theory and computational accuracy. None of the methods is clearly superior, although formal considerations favour CCSD(T) and computational accuracy for the systems considered favours CR-CC(2,3). © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Pan A.C.,University of Chicago | Pan A.C.,De Shaw Research | Cuello L.G.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Perozo E.,University of Chicago | Roux B.,University of Chicago
Journal of General Physiology | Year: 2011

The amount of ionic current flowing through K + channels is determined by the interplay between two separate time-dependent processes: activation and inactivation gating. Activation is concerned with the stimulus-dependent opening of the main intracellular gate, whereas inactivation is a spontaneous conformational transition of the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive state occurring on a variety of timescales. A recent analysis of multiple x-ray structures of open and partially open KcsA channels revealed the mechanism by which movements of the inner activation gate, formed by the inner helices from the four subunits of the pore domain, bias the conformational changes at the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive inactivated state. This analysis highlighted the important role of Phe103, a residue located along the inner helix, near the hinge position associated with the opening of the intracellular gate. In the present study, we use free energy perturbation molecular dynamics simulations (FEP/MD) to quantitatively elucidate the thermodynamic basis for the coupling between the intracellular gate and the selectivity filter. The results of the FEP/MD calculations are in good agreement with experiments, and further analysis of the repulsive, van der Waals dispersive, and electrostatic free energy contributions reveals that the energetic basis underlying the absence of inactivation in the F103A mutation in KcsA is the absence of the unfavorable steric interaction occurring with the large Ile100 side chain in a neighboring subunit when the intracellular gate is open and the selectivity filter is in a conductive conformation. Macroscopic current analysis shows that the I100A mutant indeed relieves inactivation in KcsA, but to a lesser extent than the F103A mutant. © 2011 Pan et al.


Endres N.F.,University of California at Berkeley | Das R.,University of California at Berkeley | Smith A.W.,University of California at Berkeley | Smith A.W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 15 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

How the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activates is incompletely understood. The intracellular portion of the receptor is intrinsically active in solution, and to study its regulation, we measured autophosphorylation as a function of EGFR surface density in cells. Without EGF, intact EGFR escapes inhibition only at high surface densities. Although the transmembrane helix and the intracellular module together suffice for constitutive activity even at low densities, the intracellular module is inactivated when tethered on its own to the plasma membrane, and fluorescence cross-correlation shows that it fails to dimerize. NMR and functional data indicate that activation requires an N-terminal interaction between the transmembrane helices, which promotes an antiparallel interaction between juxtamembrane segments and release of inhibition by the membrane. We conclude that EGF binding removes steric constraints in the extracellular module, promoting activation through N-terminal association of the transmembrane helices. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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