Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2014
Fly ash, a thermal power plant waste product was activated by N/2 H2SO4 and used as an adsorbent for dye removal. This study investigates the adsorption behavior of Reactive Orange 107 (RO 107) dye on to this acid activated fly ash in batch system. For acid treated fly ash, the effects of various parameters (e.g. mixing time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent doses and pH) were determined spectrophotometrically. First the adsorbent was characterized with FTIR and SEM techniques. The FTIR suggested that the dye on fly ash is probably indicating fly ash - dye complexation. Surface morphology of fly ash and dye loaded fly ash were obtained with SEM. The percentage of colour removal was increased with decreasing dye concentration and increasing contact time and adsorbent doses. Maximum removal of colour has taken place in acidic medium (pH=4). Adsorption data were fitted on Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm model. Both models showed good correlation coefficients but from the experimental data it was found that the adsorption process using fly ash adsorbent could be well described by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model.
Modgil V.,D.C.R.U.S.T. |
Sharma S.K.,National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra |
International Journal of Industrial Engineering : Theory Applications and Practice | Year: 2012
In the present work Performance modelling of the sole lasting unit, a part of shoe making industry has been done on the basis of Markov birth-death process using probabilistic approach for the purpose to compute and improve the time dependent system availability (TDSA). The kolmogorov-differential equations based on mnemonic rule are formulated using the performance model and are solved to estimate the availability of the system as a function of time month wise for the whole year using a more sensitive and advance numerical technique, known as adaptive step-size control Runge-Kutta method. The input contributors for the computation of time dependent system availability of the system are the existing failure and repair rate are taken from plant maintenance history sheets. The new repair rates are also devised for the purpose of maximum improvement in the availability. The analysis finding helps the plant management for adapting the best possible maintenance strategies. Performance modeling and availability analysis of a practical system is conducted in the paper with the purpose to improve its operational availability. The time dependent system availability (TDSA) is computed with the existing failure and repair rates on the monthly basis for the whole year. New devised repair rates are also proposed through which one can assure maximum availability of the system with existing equipments/or machines. It is also explored that the, the knowledge of TDSA minimizes the chances of sudden failure and assure the maximum availability of the system and exposes the critical subsystems which needs more attention and due consideration as far as the maintenance is concerned. The improvement in the availability of the system is mostly from 2% to 5% in most of the month. However it increases drastically to 9% in the month of April. Further the assured increase in availability increases productivity as well as the balance between demand and supply such that the manufacturer delivers its product properly in time to the market/society, which in turn increases the profit and the reputation of industry in the market. © INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING.
Rana V.,ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research |
Ram S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research |
Nehra K.,DCRUST |
Sharma I.,ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016
In the present investigation, expression of genes related to Na+ exclusion such as salt overly sensitive (TaSOS1) and Na+/H+ antiporter (TaNHX1) and proline accumulation such as pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) was studied in seedlings of Kharchia 65 (Kh 65, salt tolerant) and HD 2009 (sensitive) under salt stress (ECe, 12 dSm-1) and controlled conditions. As compared to HD 2009, Kh 65 showed significantly lower accumulation of Na+ (p < 0.01) and higher accumulation of proline (p < 0.05) in leaf blade under salt stress. The relative expression of TaSOS1 increased significantly (p < 0.001) in roots of Kh 65 (4.31-fold) while it decreased in HD 2009. There was significantly higher (p < 0.01) relative expression of TaNHX1 (27.57-fold) in leaf and 3.07-fold in roots of Kh 65 as compared to 3.65- and 0.87-fold increase in leaf and roots of HD 2009, respectively, under salt stress. There was significantly (p < 0.05) higher accumulation of proline as compared to HD 2009 in leaf tissues. There was significantly higher (p < 0.01) expression of P5CR (5.23-fold in leaf and 8.77-fold in the root) and glutamate synthase (6.0-fold in roots) in Kh 65 as compared to HD 2009. The study demonstrated that upregulation of genes for Na+ exclusion in root and compartmentation in leaf and increased proline concentration are associated with tolerance to salinity stress in wheat. The information will be useful for improving wheat genotypes for salt tolerance. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
Kumar A.,DCRUST |
Maheshwari I.,National Power Training Institute |
2012 IEEE 5th Power India Conference, PICONF 2012 | Year: 2012
In an open accessed transmission system, the costs of each ancillary service will be unbundled. This paper presents two methods, i.e., a value based approach and tracing method of allocating the cost of reactive power purchased by contract or from a bidding market. These methods have gain importance as their solutions help in evaluating a fair and transparent tariff plan. The applicability of these approaches is illustrated with a five bus case study. © 2012 IEEE.
Saroha S.,DCRUST |
Verma R.,National Power Training Institute
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013
Power sector reform is currently underway in several countries of South Asia. This is noticed mainly in the form of change in the investment and ownership pattern, and increasing role for the private investment, both domestic and foreign. These countries continue to be characterized by low per capita consumption of energy, poor quality of energy infrastructure, skewed distribution and inaccessible and costly energy availability. Interconnection of power systems of contiguously located countries and their coordinated operation provide immense technical and economic benefits. The main issue is to run the system in free and fair manner ensuring quality power to the consumer's at most economical price through safe, secure and reliable operation of the power system resulting in transparent price discovery. Although a number of market models are prevalent in the international arena, the same could not be directly adopted for South Asian Regional power market. This paper is focused on integrating the power market in South Asia, examining the opportunities, benefits, and challenges. Complexity of electricity market in cross border international model scenario has been analyzed in this paper and a model for South Asian Regional Power Pool has been proposed. Demand and supply side bidding scenarios with case studies are presented in the paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma N.,Bm Institute Of Engineering And Technology |
Tiwari D.P.,DCRUST |
Singh S.K.,Technical University of Denmark
Rasayan Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014
Adsorption is a well recognized and exercised process to decolourise the coloured water from last few decades. Numerous agricultural adsorbents in raw and chemically modified forms have been exploited in past to remove the synthetic dyes from aquatic ecosystem. Many of these adsorbents were reported to have remarkable performance for sorption of dyes. In the present study, two agricultural adsorbents, potato peel and Neem bark were treated with HCHO and H2SO4 separately and were further used to remove the toxic organic dye, Direct Red-81. The removal efficiency of all the four adsorbents viz. HCHO treated Potato peel and Neem bark (PP, NB) or H2SO4 treated potato peel and Neem bark (APP, ANB) was critically examined by constructing the breakthrough curve with the help of column study and by confirming the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic study besides the effects of change of dose, concentration, pH and temperature through batch experiments. The results found revealed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous, exothermic and reversible in nature. Among all the adsorbents, formaldehyde treated Potato peel showed significant dye removal. The maximum amount of dye adsorbed by all the four adsorbents through batch study were measured in the order of PP (58.8 mg/gm)> APP (10.4 mg/gm)> NB (8.4 mg/gm) > ANB (5.7 mg/gm). © 2014 RASAYAN. All rights reserved.
Chauhan N.,Md University |
Narang J.,Md University |
Pundir C.S.,Md University
Enzyme and Microbial Technology | Year: 2013
A commercial lysine oxidase (LyOx) from Trichoderma viride was immobilized covalently onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) electrodeposited onto Au electrode using 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (3-APTES) and glutaraldehyde cross linking chemistry. A lysine biosensor was fabricated using LyOx/3-APTES/AuNPs-PtNPs/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl (3M KCl) as standard electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The cumulative effect of AuNPs and PtNPs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low applied potential for detection of H2O2, a product of LyOx reaction. The sensor showed its optimum response within 4s, when polarized at 0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 at 30°C. The linear range and detection limit of the sensor were 1.0-600μM and 1.0μM (S/N=3), respectively. Biosensor measured lysine level in sera, milk and amino acid tablet, which correlated well with those by standard HPLC method. The enzyme electrode lost 50% of its initial activity after 200 uses over a period of 4 months. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.