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Gerber L.H.,George Mason University | Gerber L.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Stout N.,National Naval Medical Center | McGarvey C.,DCM Consulting Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Cancer-related fatigue is common, complex, and distressing. It affects 70-100% of patients receiving chemotherapy and a significant number who have completed their treatments. We assessed a number of variables in women newly diagnosed with primary breast cancer (BrCa) to determine whether biological and/or functional measures are likely to be associated with the development of clinically significant fatigue (CSF). Two hundred twenty-three women participated in a study designed to document the impact of the diagnosis and treatment of primary breast cancer on function. Forty-four had complete data on all variables of interest at the time of confirmed diagnosis but prior to treatment (baseline) and ≥9 months post-diagnosis. Objective measures and descriptive variables included history, physical examination, limb volume, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and glucose. Patient-reported outcomes included a verbal numerical rating of fatigue (0-10, a score of ≥4 was CSF), five subscales of the SF-36, Physical Activity Survey, and Sleep Questionnaire. At baseline, the entire cohort (n=223) and the subset (n=44) were not significantly different for demographic, biological, and self-reported data, except for younger age (p=0.03) and ER+ (p=0.01). Forty-five percent had body mass index (BMI)≥25, 52% were post-menopause, and 52% received modified radical mastectomy, 39% lumpectomy, 52% chemotherapy, 68% radiation, and 86% hormonal therapy. Number of patients with CSF increased from 1 at baseline to 11 at ≥9 months of follow-up. CSF at ≥9 months significantly correlated with BMI≥25, abnormal white blood cell count, and increase in limb volume and inversely correlated with vigorous activity and physical function (p<0.05). Fatigue increases significantly following the treatment of BrCa. Predictors of CSF include high BMI and WBC count, increase in limb volume, and low level of physical activity. These are remediable. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Kokosa J.M.,DCM Consulting Ltd.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Single-drop microextraction (SDME) was the first successful application of the solvent-microextraction (SME) technique for concentration and purification of analytes from aqueous and gaseous samples. However, SDME has inherent extraction-solvent-volume and drop-stability limitations, leading to the development of other SME techniques. SDME and related exposed solvent techniques remain popular due to their low cost, simplicity and the need for only common laboratory equipment. Many of these techniques also lend themselves to complete automation and on-line continuous-flow analysis. Since SDME and its related techniques involve the use of microliter quantities of extraction solvent, they are important green analytical methods. Recent uses of SDME and related techniques in green analytical methods are: direct immersion SDME (DI-SDME), headspace SDME (HS-SDME), drop-to-drop microextraction, (DDME), directly-suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME), liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME), continuous-flow microextraction (CFME), and solvent-supported microextraction (SSME). © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kokosa J.M.,DCM Consulting Ltd.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Since its inception in 1995, solvent-microextraction (SME) techniques for sample preparation have grown increasingly popular due to their simplicity, low cost, and adaptability to a wide variety of sample types and analytes. SME methods are used alone or as final clean-up and concentration techniques in preparing environmental, clinical, forensic, personal-care, pharmaceutical and food-product samples.There are two broad categories of SME: exposed-solvent and membrane-protected solvent techniques. The principal exposed-drop techniques include single-drop microextraction (SDME), headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME), liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME), liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The principal membrane-protected modes are hollow-fiber-protected 2-phase microextraction [HF(2)ME] and hollow-fiber-protected 3-phase microextraction [HF(3)ME].In recent years, interest in SME has increasingly turned to refinements of these modes for use in practical sample preparations. This has involved innovations (e.g., ionic liquids, ultrasonic-assisted emulsification, automation, and low-density solvents for DLLME).In this review, we explore these and other SME innovations appearing in the literature in the period from mid-2010 to mid-2012. © 2012. Source

Withers G.J.,Milliken Pipe Wrap | Yu Y.,Milliken Pipe Wrap | Khabashesku V.N.,University of Houston | Cercone L.,Milliken Pipe Wrap | And 4 more authors.
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2015

An organomodified surface nanoclay reinforced epoxy glass-fiber composite is evaluated for properties of mechanical strength, stiffness, ductility and fatigue life, and compared with the pristine or epoxy glass-fiber composite material not reinforced with nanoclays. The results from monotonic tensile tests of the nanoclay reinforced composite material at 60°C in air showed an average 11.7% improvement in the ultimate tensile strength, 10.6% improvement in tensile modulus, and 10.5% improvement in tensile ductility vs. these mechanical properties obtained for the pristine material. From tension-tension fatigue tests at a stress-ratio = +0.9 and at 60°C in air, the nanoclay reinforced composite had a 7.9% greater fatigue strength and a fatigue life over a decade longer or 1000% greater than the pristine composite when extrapolated to 109 cycles or a simulated 10-year cyclic life. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of the fracture and failure modes of the test specimens were used to support the results and conclusions. This nanocomposite could be used as a new and improved material for repair or rehabilitation of external surface wall corrosion or physical damage on piping and vessels found in petrochemical process plants and facilities to extend their operational life. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Morehead-Gee A.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Pfalzer L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Levy E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | McGarvey C.,DCM Consulting Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2012

Introduction African-American women are more likely than white women to have functional impairments after breast cancer (BC) surgery; however, no differences were found in self-reported health status surveys at 12+ months postsurgery. Purpose This analysis compared white and African- American BC survivors' (BCS) health status, healthrelated quality of life, and the occurrence of physical impairments after BC treatment. Methods One hundred sixty-six women (130 white, 28 African-American, 8 other) were assessed for impairments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12+ months postsurgery. Health status was assessed at 12+ months using the Short Form Health Survey (SF36v2™). Analysis of variance estimated differences between groups for health status and impairment occurrence. Results No differences were found between groups for BC type, stage, grade, or tumor size; surgery type; or number of lymph nodes sampled. African-American BCS had more estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (p<0.001; p=0.036) and received radiation more frequently (p=0.03). More African-American BCS were employed (p=0.022) and reported higher rates of social activities (p=0.011) but less recreational activities (p=0.020) than white BCS. African-American BCS had higher rates of cording (p= 0.013) and lymphedema (p=0.011) postoperatively. No differences were found in self-reported health status. Conclusion In a military healthcare system, where access to care is ubiquitous, there were no significant differences in many BC characteristics commonly attributed to race. African-American women had more ER/PR-negative tumors; however, no other BC characteristics differed between racial groups. African-American women exhibited more physical impairments, although their BC treatment only differed regarding radiation therapy. This suggests that African-American BCS may be at higher risk for physical impairments and should be monitored prospectively for early identification and treatment. © 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA). Source

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