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Reiche N.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Westerkamp T.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Lau S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Borsdorf H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Today, ground-based optical remote sensing (ORS) has become an intensively used method for quantifying pollutant or greenhouse gas emissions from point or area sources, and for the validation of airborne or satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we present the results of a release experiment using acetylene (C2H2) as a tracer gas, where three ORS techniques were simultaneously tested for two main purposes: (1) the detection of emission sources and (2) the quantification of release rates. Therefore, passive and active open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) were applied and evaluated. The concentration results of the active ORS methods are compared to those estimated by a Lagrangian stochastic atmospheric dispersion model. Our results reveal that passive OP-FTIR is a valuable tool for the rapid detection and imaging of emission sources and the spatial tracer gas distribution; while with active OP-FTIR and TDLAS, C2H2 concentrations in the sub-ppm range could be quantified that correlated well with the concentration data obtained by our modeling approach. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Thran D.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Thran D.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Witt J.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Schaubach K.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | And 8 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

The large-scale implementation of bioenergy demands solid biofuels which can be transported, stored and used efficiently. Torrefaction as a form of pyrolysis converts biomass into biofuels with according improved properties such as energy density, grindability and hydrophobicity. Several initiatives advanced this development. The first pilot-scale and demonstration plants displayed the maturity and potential of the technology.The European research project SECTOR intended to shorten the time-to-market. Within the project 158 Mg of biomass were torrefied through different technologies (rotary drum, toroidal reactor, moving bed). Their production led to process optimization of combined torrefaction-densification steps for various feedstocks through analysing changes in structure and composition. The torrefied pellets and briquettes were subjected to logistic tests (handling and storage) as well as to tests in small- and large-scale end-uses. This led to further improvement of the torrefied product meeting logistics/end-use requirements, e.g. durability, grindability, hydrophobicity, biodegradation and energy density. Durability exceeds now 95%.With these test results also international standards of advanced solid biofuels were initiated (ISO standards) as a prerequisite for global trade of torrefied material. Accompanying economic and environmental assessment identified a broad range of scenarios in which torrefied biomass perform better in these areas than traditional solid biofuels (e.g. white pellets), depending e.g. on feedstock, plant size, transport distances, integration of torrefaction in existing industries and end use. The implementation of industrial plants is the next step for the technology development. Different end user markets within and outside Europe can open opportunities here. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Horschig T.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Billig E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Thran D.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Thran D.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Agronomy Research | Year: 2016

One option for energy provision from renewables is the production and grid injection of synthetic natural gas from lignin-rich biomass like wood and straw. Bio-SNG (biological produced synthetic/substitute natural gas) is the product of the thermochemical production of methane via gasification and methanation of lignin-rich biomass. The first commercial bio-SNG plant went successfully into operation in the end of 2014, in Gothenburg (Sweden). Regarding the huge potential of lignin-rich biomass bio-SNG is expected to have a high potential for a sustainable and greenhouse gas reducing contribution in power, heat and fuel markets. Being a future technology with great advantages like storability and transportability within a gas grid but recently too high prices for market implementation, possible future market shares are uncertain because bio-SNG has to compete with anaerobic biomethane as well as fossil alternatives. With the combination of an extensive techno-economic evaluation for present and future costs of bio- SNG depending on the feedstock supply chain and economy of scale, Delphi-Survey and a quantitative market simulation we determined future market shares for biomethane and bio-SNG for Germany under varying scenarios like incentive schemes, economy of scale and feedstock prices. Results indicate that substantial governmental support in terms of either R&D effort to lower bio-SNG prices or direct subsidies for a further capacity development is necessary to achieve significant market shares for biogenic methane. © 2016, Eesti Pollumajandusulikool. All rights reserved. Source

Daniel-Gromke J.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Liebetrau J.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Denysenko V.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH | Krebs C.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH
Energy, Sustainability and Society | Year: 2015

Background: For a precise description of the emission situation of the anaerobic digestion (AD) of the separately collected organic fraction of household waste (bio-waste), only a few data are available. The paper presents the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured at 12 representative AD plants treating bio-waste. The results of the emission measurements were used to assess the ecological impact of bio-waste digestion and to describe possible mitigation measures to reduce the occurring GHG emissions. With respect to the climate protection, a quantitative assessment of the emissions of energy generation from biomass and biological waste treatment is important. Biogas plants need to be operated in a way that negative environmental effects are avoided and human health is not compromised. Methods: GHG balances were calculated based on the measured emissions of the gases methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia of bio-waste AD plants. The emission analysis supports the reduction of GHGs in biogas production and contributes to a climate-efficient technology. Results: The results show that GHG emissions can be minimized, if the technology and operation of the plant are adjusted accordingly. The open storage of active material (e.g., insufficient fermented residues from batch fermentation systems), open digestate storage tanks, missing acidic scrubbers in front of bio-filters, or insufficient air supply during the post-composting of digestate can cause relevant GHG emissions. Conclusions: Consequently avoiding open storage of insufficient fermented residues and using aerated post-composting with short turnover periods, smaller heaps, and an optimized amount of structure (woody) material can reduce GHG emissions. © 2015, Daniel-Gromke et al.; licensee Springer. Source

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