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Bhujang R.K.,Bangalore University | Suma V.,Dayananda Sagar Institutions
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

Organizational success in software industry is completely dependent on accomplishment in terms of successful project delivery that results in client satisfaction associated with end user requirements. This victory can be sustained if the IT industry is able to cope up with all the challenges involved in software development targeted towards either product development or providing a service. One of the major challenges that can be listed as a key encounter in software development is Risk. Growth of an industry can take up well-defined criteria with respect to attainment of success if Risk management implements an efficient technique. This risk has to be measured foremost in terms of Cost, Time, People and Process (CTP2) to understand the impact of the same in the project. This paper aims to classify various Risks based on the impact analysis which is conducted in terms of CTP2. This mode of classification enables one to prioritize the risk in order to mitigate or deal with it effectively. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. Source

Rao A.R.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Rao A.R.,University of Malaya | Sindhuja H.N.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Dharmesh S.M.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Astaxanthin mono- (AXME) and diesters (AXDE) were characterized and examined for anticancer potency with total carotenoids (TC) and astaxanthin (AX) against UV-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer model in rat. At 200 μg/kg bw, AXDE and AXME reduced UV-DMBA-induced tumor incidences up to 96 and 88%, respectively, when compared to AX (66%) and TC (85%). UV-DMBA has been known to generate high levels of free radicals and tyrosinase enzyme, leading to characteristic symptoms of skin pigmentation and tumor initiation. Intriguingly, ∼7-fold increase in tyrosinase and 10-fold decrease in antioxidant levels were normalized by AXDE and AXME as opposed to only ∼1.4-2.2-fold by AX and TC, respectively. This result together with the appearance of 72 and 58 ng/mL of retinol in the serum of respective AXE-treated (AXDE + AXME) and AX-treated animals suggested that better anticancer potency of AXEs could be due to increased bioavailability. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Saraswati S.,Dayananda Sagar Institutions | Sitaraman R.,TERI University
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education | Year: 2014

Given the centrality of evolutionary theory to the study of biology, we present a strategy for reinforcing its importance by appropriately recontextualizing classic and well-known experiments that are not explicitly linked with evolution in conventional texts. This exercise gives students an appreciation of the applicability of the theory of evolution in diverse contexts, including those where it is not explicitly mentioned. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(2):162-164, 2014. Source

Ambati R.R.,University of Malaya | Moi P.S.,University of Malaya | Ravi S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Aswathanarayana R.G.,Dayananda Sagar Institutions
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′ -carotene-4,4′-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI. Source

Kathiresan S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Kathiresan S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Chandrashekar A.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Chandrashekar A.,Bhat Bio Technology India P Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries is mainly produced from green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. It is biosynthesized by the action of key enzyme, β-carotene ketolase (BKT) on β-carotene through intermediates echinenone and canthaxanthin. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase ( bkt) gene was isolated from H. pluvialis and cloned in a vector pRT100 and further mobilized to a binary vector pCAMBIA 1304. The T-DNA of pCAMBIA 1304, which consists of cloned bkt, was successfully transformed to H. pluvialis through Agrobacterium mediation. The cloning and transformation of bkt in H. pluvialis was confirmed by Southern blotting and also by PCR analysis. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin content in the transformed cells were found to be 2-3-fold higher, while the intermediates like echinenone and canthaxanthin were found to be 8-10-fold higher than in the control cells. The expression level of carotenogenic genes like phytoene synthase ( psy), phytoene desaturase ( pds), lycopene cyclase ( lcy), bkt, and β-carotene hydroxylase ( bkh) were found to be higher in transformed cells compared to the non-transformed (NT) H. pluvialis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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