Kaur H.,Fortis Hospital |
Bhoday H.S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2017
Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours. The reasons may be biological mainly the sleep phase delay or psychosocial and environmental. These include academic demands, social activities, sports, internet, television viewing, part-time employment, and use of mobile phone at night, peer and parental influence and socioeconomic status. These changing patterns of sleep in adolescents lead to many behavioral sleep problems like Delayed Sleep-phase Syndrome; Difficulties in falling asleep (insomnia); excessive daytime sleepiness, poor academic performance. Decreased sleep in adolescents also causes obesity and other cardio-metabolic abnormalities. This needs an integrated approach involving adolescents themselves, their parents, teachers and specialized physicians to help improve the sleep quantity and quality and lead to a better quality of life and daytime functioning in adolescents. © 2017, Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.
Dogra A.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Arora A.K.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014
Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis.
Grewal A.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2010
Anaemia in pregnancy defi ned as haemoglobin (Hb) level of < 10 gm/dL, is a qualitative or quantitative defi ciency of Hb or red blood cells in circulation resulting in reduced oxygen (O 2)- carrying capacity of the blood. Compensatory mechanisms in the form of increase in cardiac output (CO), PaO 2, 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels, rightward shift in the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), decrease in blood viscosity and release of renal erythropoietin, get activated to variable degrees to maintain tissue oxygenation and offset the decreases in arterial O 2 content. Parturients with concomitant medical diseases or those with acute ongoing blood losses may get decompensated, leading to serious consequences like right heart failure, angina or tissue hypoxemia in severe anaemia. Preoperative evaluation is aimed at assessing the severity and cause of anaemia. The concept of an acceptable Hb level varies with the underlying medical condition, extent of physiological compensation, the threat of bleeding and ongoing blood losses. The main anaesthetic considerations are to minimize factors interfering with O 2 delivery, prevent any increase in oxygen consumption and to optimize the partial pressure of O 2 in the arterial blood. Both general anaesthesia and regional anaesthesia can be employed judiciously. Monitoring should focus mainly on the adequacy of perfusion and oxygenation of vital organs. Hypoxia, hyperventilation, hypothermia, acidosis and other conditions that shift the ODC to left should be avoided. Any decrease in CO should be averted and aggressively treated.
Goraya J.S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2015
We describe acute movement disorders in 92 children, aged 5 days to 15 years, from an Indian tertiary hospital. Eighty-nine children had hyperkinetic movement disorders, with myoclonus in 25, dystonia in 21, choreoathetosis in 19, tremors in 15, and tics in 2. Tetany and tetanus were seen in 5 and 2 children, respectively. Hypokinetic movement disorders included acute parkinsonism in 3 children. Noninflammatory and inflammatory etiology were present in 60 and 32 children, respectively. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus in 16 and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome in 7 accounted for the majority of myoclonus cases. Vitamin B12 deficiency in 13 infants was the most common cause of tremors. Rheumatic fever and encephalitis were the most common causes of acute choreoathetosis. Acute dystonia had metabolic etiology in 6 and encephalitis and drugs in 3 each. Psychogenic movement disorders were seen in 4 cases only, although these patients may be underreported. © The Author(s) 2014.
Swerlick R.A.,Emory University |
Puar N.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Dermatologic Therapy | Year: 2015
We retrospectively identified 17 patients with delayed pressure urticaria (DPU), diagnosed by history and confirmed with provocative pressure testing. The average age in the cohort was 42.6 years with 10 women and seven men. The mean duration of disease before diagnosis was 19.7 months (range, 1-60 months). The diagnosis of DPU was not included in the differential diagnosis of referring physicians and was not a diagnostic consideration in any of seven biopsies obtained. None of the patients responded adequately to treatment with antihistamines, but all 17 responded transiently when treated with either oral or intramuscular steroids. Eleven patients experienced complete or near complete resolution of DPU with treatment with sulfasalazine (SZ). Four patients had a partial response while two were unable to continue therapy because of drug intolerance. SZ appears to be a low cost and effective treatment for DPU. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaur S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Dogra A.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013
Anti-epileptic drugs can be associated with a wide spectrum of cutaneous adverse reactions ranging from simple maculopapular rashes to more severe and life threatening reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. These rashes are well documented with older antiepileptic drugs like phenytoin, phenobarbitone and carbamazapine. Lamotrigine is a newer, unrelated antiepileptic drug that causes skin rashes in 3-10% of new users. Higher starting dose or rapid escalation, concurrent treatment with valproic acid, and a previous history of a rash with other antiepileptic drugs are well recognized risk factors for lamotrigine related serious rashes. We report two patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis, resulting from concomitant use of lamotrigine and valproic acid. It is emphasized that clinicians adhere to the recommended dosage guidelines and adopt a slow dose titration when initiating treatment with lamotrigine.
Sidhu S.S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Goyal O.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Mishra B.P.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Sood A.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011
Objectives:Cirrhotics with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have a poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment of MHE is still evolving. The aim of this double-blind randomized pilot study was to assess the efficacy of rifaximin in improving neuropsychometric (NP) test performance and HRQOL in patients with MHE.Methods:MHE was diagnosed if any two NP tests (number and figure connection tests, picture completion, digit symbol, and block design tests) were deranged beyond 2 s.d. of normal. HRQOL was assessed using the sickness impact profile (SIP) questionnaire.Results:A total of 486 patients with cirrhosis were screened and 284 were found eligible. Out of these 115 (40.9%) had MHE, of which 21 refused consent and 94 were randomized to receive placebo (n45) and rifaximin (n49; 1200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of treatment, significantly more number of patients in rifaximin group showed reversal of MHE (75.5% (37/49) vs. 20% (9/45) in placebo group; P 0.0001). Rifaximin group also showed significant reduction in mean number of abnormal NP tests (baseline, 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.17-2.53); 2 weeks, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.02-1.56), P0.002; 8 weeks, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.61-1.02), P0.000), compared with placebo group (baseline, 2.31 (95% CI, 2.03-2.59); 2 weeks, 2.03 (95% CI, 1.74-2.31); 8 weeks, 1.97 (95% CI, 1.69-2.25), P0.05). The mean total SIP score also improved significantly in rifaximin group (baseline, 11.67 (95% CI, 10.31-13.03); 8 weeks, 6.45 (95% CI, 5.59-7.30); P0.000) compared with placebo group (baseline, 9.86 (95% CI, 8.66-11.06); 8 weeks, 8.51 (95% CI, 7.35-9.67); P0.82). Improvement in HRQOL correlated with improvement in NP tests. Rifaximin was well tolerated.Conclusions:Rifaximin significantly improves both cognitive functions and HRQOL in patients with MHE. © 2011 by the American College of Gastroenterology.
Gupta K.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Kaushal S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Current Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012
The overactive bladder is a common and distressing condition that has a significant impact on the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, it is a disorder poorly known and not usually tackled in daily clinical practice. The underlying pathophysiology that leads to OAB syndrome is, as yet, incompletely characterized. Non-pharmacological intervention is the foundation of treatment for overactive bladder. Traditional non-harmacological tools and lifestyle modification should be provided consistently as part of a balanced program for improving target symptom control. In the past, the entire pharmacotherapeutic scenario of OAB had been dependent on modulation of muscarinic receptors. These receptors, although important to intrinsic detrusor function, do not appear to be completely responsible for OAB, given the incomplete therapeutic responses obtained with current agents. Anti-muscarinics remain the first line in pharmacotherapy. However, these agents produce variable efficacy and/or are often associated with considerable adverse effects resulting in treatment failure. Thus, there is a need for more effective treatments. Prospective therapies aimed at novel targets with novel mechanisms of action are currently at different stages of clinical development. With the exception of botulinum toxin, however, few newer therapies have emerged showing clinical benefits. Objective: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the various drug therapies available for the anagement of OAB. Non pharmacological therapies are being outlined briefly. Methods: MEDLINE, Medscape, and Google scholar databases were searched using the relevant terms. Full text articles in English regarding the current literature on the management of OAB with major emphasis on pharmacotherapy were selected for reference. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Mittal P.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2011
Hemichorea-hemiballism syndrome (HCHB) is a relatively rare cause of unilateral chorea in diabetic patients and is due to non ketotoic hyperglycaemia. Characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) findings include T1 hyperintensity in the contralateral putamen without any significant signal alteration on other conventional MR sequences. We report susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) findings in a case of HCHB syndrome.
Kaur K.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Kalra S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital |
Kaushal S.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2014
Purpose The goal of this study was to review and summarize the efficacy and safety of use of tofacitinib for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify English-language articles published through May 2013 within PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library reporting results from Phase II and Phase III tofacitinib randomized clinical trials. Tofacitinib must have been used as monotherapy or in combination therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in the treatment of RA. Study outcomes had to include at least 1 of the following: American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20%, 50%, or 70% response rates; tender/swollen joint count; health assessment questionnaire of disability; radiographic outcomes; and drug persistence. Findings Eight studies (4 Phase II and 4 Phase III trials) were included in the review. Patients with active RA and who were nonresponders to a biologic agent or the nonbiologic DMARD methotrexate were included in these studies. The results of the Phase II trials show that tofacitinib at doses ≥3 mg BID was efficacious among the nonresponders. The results of the Phase III trials, comparing tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg with placebo, show that tofacitinib led to a significant improvement in ACR20 response (P < 0.0001), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (P < 0.0001) scores, and ACR50 response (P < 0.0001) after 3 months. The efficacy of tofacitinib was numerically similar to adalimumab. The most common adverse events were infections, infestations, increases in LDL-C and HDL-C levels, and a decrease in neutrophil counts. Implications Tofacitinib is an efficacious drug for the management of moderate to severe RA among patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Long-term studies can help in understanding the risk/benefit profile of tofacitinib. © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.