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Camden Haven, Australia

Playford,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Smith A.N.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Love S.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Besier R.B.,Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food | And 2 more authors.
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Objective: This study aimed to provide an indication of the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in the Australian sheep industry by compiling the results of faecal worm egg count reduction tests (FECRTs). Methods: Government and private parasitology laboratories, pharmaceutical companies and veterinarians known to have conducted FECRTs were asked to provide results that conformed to Australian and New Zealand standard diagnostic procedures. Results: Data were available from a total of 390 tests, with larval differentiation conducted in 222 cases. Pooled results from all states for the macrocyclic lactone (ML) class showed a lower prevalence of AR against combined species for moxidectin (54%) compared with abamectin (77%) and ivermectin (87%). Analysis by state revealed higher levels of ML-resistant Teladorsagia sp. in Tasmania and Western Australia than in other states and ML-resistant Haemonchus sp. was more frequently detected in New South Wales. Conclusion: This compilation of results of FECRTs conducted by Australian parasitology laboratories in 2009-12 showed widespread AR of the common sheep nematodes (Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus) to all broad-spectrum anthelmintics, with the exception of monepantel, whether used singly or in combination. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

Playford M.C.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Dawson K.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Playford S.E.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Smith A.N.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Australian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Infectious diseases in dairy cows often follow a time of nutritional or physiological stress and the subsequent altered immune system function. This study aimed to determine if the immunomodulatory effects of a feed additive previously observed in experimental animals and housed cattle fed total mixed rations could be reproduced in pasture-fed dairy cattle under Australian conditions. Methods: The study included 34 pasture-fed dairy cattle given the treatment (n = 17) or placebo (bentonite, n = 17) for an acclimation period of 15 days followed by 60 days of supplementation. Blood tests were taken pre-trial and then 30, 60 and 90 days after acclimation. Blood samples were extracted and preserved in Trizol and analysed for immune markers. Results: Pasture-fed dairy cows in the treatment group had significantly higher levels of the immune markers interleukin-8R and L-selectin in comparison with placebo-fed cows at 60 days after the start of supplementation. Conclusion: The immunomodulatory effects of the additive observed in the current study and the associated enhanced neutrophil function demonstrated by other studies suggest a role in decreasing the rates of mastitis and other infectious diseases of dairy cattle, particularly during times of nutritional or physiological stress. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

Kamau J.,Hokkaido University | De Vos A.J.,Tick Fever Center | Playford M.,Dawbuts Pty Ltd | Salim B.,Hokkaido University | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak. © 2011 Kamau et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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