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Elkins, WV, United States

Stove S.K.,Davis and Elkins College | Mabry M.L.,Lenoir-Rhyne University
Bioscene | Year: 2010

A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete science education.


Calhoun W.R.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Maeta H.,Miami University Ohio | Roy S.,Davis and Elkins College | Bali L.M.,Miami University Ohio | Bali S.,Miami University Ohio
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

We demonstrate a first simultaneous measurement of both the refractive index and the attenuation coefficient (defined as the sum of the scattering and absorption coefficients) of highly turbid milk and milk-cream mixtures. We achieve this by observing the real-time reflectance profile of a divergent laser beam made incident on the surface of the milk sample. The experiments were carried out on commercial milk samples with fat volume concentrations of 0.5 or less, 1.6, and 3.3%, and on milk-cream mixtures with fat volume concentrations of 10 and 33.3%, without any dilutions of these samples. We find that the reflectance data are well described, for the first time without any empirical fit-parameters, by Fresnel theory that correctly includes the effect of angle-dependent penetration into the turbid medium on the total internally reflected signal. Therefore, our method provides the most accurate determination to date of the refractive index and attenuation coefficient of milk and milk-cream mixtures. Our sensor is compact, portable, and inexpensive. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Gaylor M.O.,Davis and Elkins College | Harvey E.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Hale R.C.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are added at percent levels to many polymers and textiles abundant in human spaces and vehicles, wherein they have been long assumed to be tightly sequestered. However, the mgkg -1 burdens recently detected in indoor dust testify to substantial releases. The bulk of released PBDEs remain in the terrestrial environment, yet comparatively little research focuses on this compartment. There, insects/arthropods, such as crickets, are the most abundant invertebrate organisms and facilitate the trophic transfer of contaminants by breaking down complex organic matter (including discarded polymers) and serving as food for other organisms. Our experiments revealed that house crickets (Acheta domesticus) provided uncontaminated food and free access to PUF containing Penta-BDE (8.7%drywt) for 28d accumulated substantial PBDE body burdens. Crickets allowed to depurate gut contents exhibited whole body burdens of up to 13.4mgkg -1 lipid ΣPenta-BDE, 1000-fold higher than typically reported in humans. Non-depurated crickets and molted exoskeletons incurred even higher ΣPenta-BDE, up to 80.6 and 63.3mgkg -1 lipid, respectively. Congener patterns of whole crickets and molts resembled those of PUF and the commercial Penta-BDE formulation, DE-71, indicative of minimal discrimination or biotransformation. Accumulation factor (AF) calculations were hampered by uncertainties in determining actual PUF ingestion. However, estimated AFs were low, in the range of 10 -4-10 -3, suggesting that polymer-PBDE interactions limited uptake. Nonetheless, results indicate that substantial PBDE burdens may be incurred by insects in contact with current-use and derelict treated polymers within human spaces and solid waste disposal sites (e.g. landfills, automotive dumps, etc.). Once ingested, even burdens not absorbed across the gut wall may be dispersed within proximate terrestrial food webs via the insect's movements and/or predation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


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Davis and Elkins College | Entity website

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