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Andress D.,David Andress and Associates | Nguyen T.D.,U.S. Department of Energy | Das S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels. © 2011 International Energy Initiative. Source

Andress D.,David Andress and Associates | Dean Nguyen T.,U.S. Department of Energy | Das S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

In the United States, the federal government and several state governments are formulating or implementing policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In April 2009, the State of California adopted the Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), a groundbreaking policy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. This paper reviews the major elements of a LCFS, focusing on California's implementation, and discusses the key open issues of a LCFS. This paper also summarizes the major elements of the cap-and-trade and carbon tax concepts, the two principal alternative approaches to regulating greenhouse gases emissions. Analytical issues associated with the LCFS are highlighted, including land-use change effects associated with certain biofuels. If electricity becomes a significant transportation fuel, a number of regulatory issues will need to be addressed. Beyond California, the LCFS approach appears to be favored by several other US states and the European Union. A Hydrogen-Success scenario example illustrates the key features of a national LCFS following California's model. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Elgowainy A.,Argonne National Laboratory | Rousseau A.,Argonne National Laboratory | Wang M.,Argonne National Laboratory | Ruth M.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The use of alternative fuels and advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies is gaining momentum worldwide in order to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed technical and cost targets at the component level for several advanced LDV technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles as well as cost targets for low-carbon fuels. DOE, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently updated their analysis of well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. A comprehensive assessment of how these alternative fuels and vehicle technologies options could cost-effectively meet the future carbon emissions and oil consumption targets has been conducted. This paper estimates the ownership cost and the potential reduction of WTW carbon emissions and oil consumption associated with alternative fuels and advanced LDV technologies. Efficient LDVs and low-carbon fuels can contribute to a substantial reduction in GHG emissions from the current 200-230. g/km for typical compact (small family) size diesel and gasoline vehicles. With RD&D success, the ownership costs of various advanced powertrains deployed in the 2035 time frame will likely converge, thus enhancing the probability of their market penetration. To attain market success, it is necessary that public and private sectors coordinate RD&D investments and incentive programs aiming at both reducing the cost of advanced vehicle technologies and establishing required fuel infrastructures. © 2013. Source

Andress D.,David Andress and Associates | Das S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Joseck F.,U.S. Department of Energy | Dean Nguyen T.,U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

The need to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases is driving a fundamental change toward more efficient, advanced vehicles, and fuels in the transportation sector. The paper reviews the current status of light duty vehicles in the US and discusses policies to improve fuel efficiency, advanced electric drives, and sustainable cellulosic biofuels. The paper describes the cost, technical, infrastructure, and market barriers for alternative technologies, i.e., advanced biofuels and light-duty vehicles, including diesel vehicles, natural-gas vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell electric vehicles. The paper also presents R&D targets and technology validation programs of the US government. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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