Davanagere University

Davanagere, India

Davanagere University

Davanagere, India
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Chandrashekhar Joshi G.,MangaloreUniversity | Gopal M.,Davanagere University
Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Many people in rural Bangladesh use a traditional contraceptive pill, "Shanti Bori" to control fertility in which Tragia involucrata is one of the components. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of antifertility effect of this plant. The hexane (HE) and ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) of the aerial parts of T. involucrata have been evaluated for the anti-fertility activity in proven fertile female rats at dose of 200 mg kg-1 body weight. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phytosterols, triterpenes and flavonoids in the extracts. HE and EAE showed significant anti-fertility activity. It was found that the extracts reduced the number of litters born significantly at the dose of 200 mg kg-1 body weight. HE and EAE exhibited 81 and 50% antiimplantation potency respectively at the tested dose. The extracts also showed the estrogenic activity and potentiated the action of the standard drug ethanyl estradiol. All these observations suggest that extracts have antiimplantation as well as the abortifacient activity and are safe at the effective antifertility doses employed in this study ©2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Joshi C.G.,Mangalore University | Gopal M.,Davanagere University | Vaigundan D.,Mangalore University
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

The present study was under taken to study the antioxidant potential of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) Fischer. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were studied using in vitro assays and compared with the standard antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and rutin. All the three extracts showed significant radical scavenging activities, total antioxidant activity and reducing power. These activities showed the dose dependency. Radical scavenging activities and antioxidant nature of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids in these plant extracts. These studies prove the potential antioxidant nature of the extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea aerial parts.

Joshi C.G.,Mangalore University | Gopal M.,Davanagere University | Kumari N.S.,NITTE University
International Journal of Cancer Research | Year: 2011

The practice of traditional medicines in treatment of cancer is based on the knowledge and use of plant based medicine since ancient time. The study of folk medicinal practices revealed the use of Tragia involucrata (Euphorbiaceae) along with other medicinal plants to treat certain tumours in some parts of Kerala, India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts (HE and EAE) and to asses the antioxidant activity of EAE of T. involucrata. The mice were injected with 106 Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells subcutaneously and the extracts were administered intra-peritoneal (i.p.). In vitro antioxidant property of EAE was tested by 2, 2'-azinobis (3 -ethylbenzo{cyrillic}-thiozoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. In vivo antioxidant potential of EAE was determined by nitric-oxide by Griess-reagent method, total antioxidant in serum by phosphomolybdenum method and super oxide dismutase by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. Administration of the extracts to mice challenged with EAC showed significant antitumour activity. The observed antitumor activity of the extracts was dose dependant. There was a significant increase in the percentage life span (ILS %) in extract treated mice. HE was not toxic to mice even at the dose of 2000 mg kg-1 body weight. EAE was toxic to animals when the dosage was increased beyond 150 mg kg-1. EAE was showing even a significant in vitro as well as in vivo antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant activity was showing the reciprocal dose response. From the results it may be concluded that the plant posses antitumor activity as claimed in traditional practices. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Asha,Davanagere University | Gayathri D.,Davanagere University
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

In the present study, Lactobacillus (160) isolates were isolated from curd sample. The isolates were aimed to analyze the antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae sub sp., ogawa, V. cholerae sub sp., inaba, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp. and Shigella dysenteriae. All the isolates were inhibiting the tested Enteropathogenic bacteriaexcept S. dysenteriae. Lactobacillus isolates produced highest inhibition zone (30 to 37 mm) against V. cholerae sub sp.,inaba and Klebsiella sp., of the 160 isolates only ten Lactobacillus isolates (L1- L10) were used for the production ofbacteriocins, purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange (DEAE cellulose) chromatography. Maximum bacteriocin activity has been observed with Lf3 against V. cholerae ssp Inaba at 30°C, pH 6.0, 1.5 to 2.0% Na Cl/18 h in addition to L8, L9 and L10 (MW 100 to 106 KDa) and Lf3 was found to be the most prominent potential isolate. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012.

Mithila B.S.,Kuvempu University | Mithila B.S.,Davanagere University | Ravikumara N.R.,Kuvempu University | Ravikumara N.R.,Davanagere University | Madhusudhan B.,Davanagere University
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2013

Infectious diseases such as anaplasmosis continue to cause serious health problems in domestic animals around the world. Due to climatic variations such as global warming and continued drug resistance in infectious organisms, prevention and control of virulent diseases have become a challenging task of national and global significance. The anaplasmosis organism is susceptible to antibiotics include oxytetracycline. Unfortunately, cattle showing clinical signs usually respond to high dosages of oxytetracycline given by injection. Since biodegradable polymers have been extensively studied for numerous drug delivery systems, nanoparticles could be used as oxytetracycline antibiotics carriers for oral delivery. In the present study, we describe the preparation, characterization and toxicity assay of oxytetracycline-loaded polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate nanoparticles (OTC-pHEMA-NPs). The nanoparticles prepared by emulsion method were evaluated for their particle size, encapsulation efficiency and acute toxicity assays in vivo. Different characterization methods, notably Dynamic light scattering, Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy and Infrared spectroscopy were appropriately utilised to confirm the drug content and in vitro release. Hemolytic and in vivo toxicity studies were found to be acceptable for oral drug therapy at the nanoscale level in order to reduce the possible threat by free radical generation in vivo. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers. Website © 2013 Publishing Technology.

Ravikumara N.R.,Kuvempu University | Ravikumara N.R.,Davanagere University | Madhusudhan B.,Davanagere University
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, tamoxifen citrate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (tamoxcL-ChtNPs) and tamoxifen citrate-free chitosan nanoparticles (tamoxcF-ChtNPs) were prepared by an ionic gelation (IG) method. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were analyzed for particle size, zeta (ζ) potential, and other characteristics using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), zeta phase analysis light scattering (PALS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The variation in particle size was assessed by changing the concentration of chitosan, pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), and the pH of the solution. The optimized tamoxcL-ChtNPs showed mean diameter of 187 nm, polydispersity of 0.125, and ζ-potential of +19.1 mV. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of tamoxifen citrate (tamoxc) increased at higher concentrations, and release of tamoxc from the chitosan matrix displayed controlled biphasic behavior. Those tamoxcL-ChtNPs tested for chemosensitivity showed dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative activity of tamoxc. Further, tamoxcL-ChtNPs were found to be hemocompatible with human red blood cells (RBCs) and safe by in vitro cytotoxicity tests, suggesting that they offer promise as drug delivery systems in therapy. © 2011 IUPAC.

Asha,Davanagere University | Gayathri D.,Davanagere University
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2012

Lactobacillus sp. is the most dominant probiotic strain of bacteria. Evidence indicates that the consumption of Lactobacillus sp. reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in animal models. The present study was carried out to determine whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum/Lactobacillus plantarum alone or in combination with vincristine have a synergistic impact on the control of colorectal cancer in an animal model. Mice with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) hydrochloride-induced colon cancer were fed with L. fermentum and L. plantarum isolated along with vincristine. An increase in body weight, a decrease in ammonia concentration, a decrease in β glucosidase and β glucuronidase enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of crypts in the mice in the pre-carcinogen-induced group was noted when compared to these variables in the post-carcinogen-induced group. The body weight of the mice fed L. fermentum along with vincristine was increased (6.5 g), and was found to be 3.5 times higher compared to that of the control. A marked decrease in the ammonia concentration (240 mg), and β glucosidase (0.0023 IU) and β glucopyranose enzyme activity (0.0027 IU) was observed; 22.59% less ammonia concentration, 73.26% less β glucosidase activity and 56.46% less β glucuronidase enzyme activity was noted when compared to the control. A significant reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (90%) was observed when compared to the control. Maximum protection was observed in the mice fed the probiotics and vincristine prior to cancer induction. Among the different dietary combinations tested in the present study, L. fermentum and vincristine showed a more extensive reduction in ammonia concentration, β glucosidase, β glucuronidase activity and the number of ACF.

Ravikumara N.R.,Kuvempu University | Ravikumara N.R.,Davanagere University | Tiyaboonchai W.,Naresuan University | Madhusudhan B.,Davanagere University
Current Nanoscience | Year: 2013

Phytoestrogens are the most important therapeutic molecules that are richly present in soya based foods. Genistein (GEN) is one among the prominent constituent of soybean. Isolated form of Genistein has poor bioavailability because of its low aqueous solubility, absorption and limited clinical efficacy. Encapsulated GEN could be used for colloidal drug delivery for the treatment of diseases including breast cancer. In the present study we have prepared poly lactic acid based nanoparticles with Genistein by emulsion diffusion method. The obtained genistein-loaded nanoparticles (GEN-PLA-NPs) were characterized for their size (PCS/ Zetasizer), shape (SEM) and other physical properties using FTIR and DSC. Encapsulation efficiency, release characteristics The sizes of the particles were ranged between 100 nm and 380 nm due to different solvents that were used during the preparation of nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions, different sizes of the particles (259.7 nm, 122.3 nm and 105.7 nm) were formed with encapsulation efficiency (73.9%, 57.9% and 61.4%, respectively). The drug and polymer interaction studies were performed by FTIR and DSC. When percent release of encapsulated drug was studies in PBS (pH 7.4), it was found to be biphasic pattern (Korsmeyer-Peppas model) with 21.27% release at 37°C in 24 h. In hemolysis experiment, Genistein loaded poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles exhibited non-toxic nature. These results demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulation of GEN and its non-toxic in vitro studies. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Sandhya B.,Karnatak University | Hegde A.H.,Karnatak University | Ramesh K.C.,Davanagere University | Seetharamappa J.,Karnatak University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The mechanism of interaction of ondansetron hydrochloride (OND) to serum albumins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA)] was studied for the first time employing fluorimetric, circular dichroism, FTIR and UV-vis absorption techniques under the simulated physiological conditions. Fluorimetric results were utilized to investigate the binding and conformational characteristics of protein upon interaction with varying concentrations of the drug. Higher binding constant values revealed the strong interaction between the drug and protein while the number of binding sites close to unity indicated single class of binding site for OND in protein. Thermodynamic results revealed that both hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in stabilizing drug-protein complex. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that the OND bound to albumins at subdomin II A (Sudlow's site I). Further, the binding distance between OND and serum albumin was calculated based on the Förster's theory of non-radioactive energy transfer and found to be 2.30 and 3.41 nm, respectively for OND-BSA and OND-HSA. The circular dichroism data revealed that the presence of OND decreased the α-helix content of serum albumins. 3D-fluorescence results also indicated the conformational changes in protein upon interaction with OND. Further, the effects of some cations have been investigated in the interaction of drug to protein. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rashmi B.S.,Davanagere University | Gayathri D.,Davanagere University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2014

Lipase from Lactobacillus sp G5 isolate was partially purified and characterized. Out of 22 isolates, only seven (G1-G7) were phenotypically and biochemically characterized as Lactobacillus. However, only G5 isolate showed highest enzyme activity of 31.27 U/ml and chosen for partial purification and characterization. After ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, specific activity of the enzyme was found to be 0.770 IU. During optimization, the enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 8/40°C. Stability was found at pH range 7-9, with temperature range 30°C-60°C. The enzyme showed maximum activity at a pNPA concentration of 0.150 mg/1.5 ml/1 ml enzyme solution. Vmax and Km values were 27.32 U/ml and 0.04 mg/min. Among several substrates tested (tween-20, olive oil, castor oil, palm oil, glycerol tributyrate and ghee), maximum affinity was observed towards glycerol tributyrate. Further, the G5 isolate showed good number of probiotic qualities viz., tolerated 1.5% bile salt for 4 h and at 2% the viability decreased, while luxuriant growth was observed at pH 3 and survived at pH 1 and 2 for 4 h. In addition, G5 exhibited resistance to lincomycin and was sensitive to chlorotetracyclin. The results obtained in the present study would indicate the stability of Lactobacillus G5 isolate in hydrolyzing lipids and probably a promising probiotic candidate. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM.

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