Date Palm Research Center

Al Qurayyāt, Saudi Arabia

Date Palm Research Center

Al Qurayyāt, Saudi Arabia

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Hoddle M.S.,University of California at Riverside | Hoddle C.D.,University of California at Riverside | Faleiro J.R.,Date Palm Research Center | El-Shafie H.A.F.,King Faisal University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. Of those weevils flying > 1 km (n = 139), 55% flew > 10 km, and of these flyers 5% flew > 50 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost ∼9-13% body weight in 24 h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was ∼27°C) flew the longest average distances (∼25-35 km), exhibited highest weight reductions (∼30%), and greatest mortality rates (∼80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


Hoddle M.S.,University of California at Riverside | Al-Abbad A.H.,Directorate of Agriculture | El-Shafie H.A.F.,King Faisal University | Faleiro J.R.,King Faisal University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a highly destructive pest of date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Saudi Arabia. Data spanning a six year period (2007-2012) from Al Ghowaybah, a 1104ha date producing region in the Al Ahsaa Directorate in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed to assess the impact enhanced management efforts that commenced in Oct. 2009 had against this pest. Within six months of initiating the areawide management program significant reductions in the mean monthly number of weevils trapped and percentage traps with R.ferrugineus were detected. Mean monthly trap captures of R.ferrugineus and the percentage of traps capturing weevils declined significantly from 2009 to 2012 by an average of 65% and 90%, respectively, indicating that trapping and dispersal pressure was significantly reduced. By 2011, average monthly trap captures and percentage of traps with R.ferrugineus were significantly lower than all pre-management capture data and this was maintained through 2012 when data collection ceased. Additionally, over the period 2010-2012, insecticide application and palm eradication rates dropped by 91% and 89%, respectively. The total number of R.ferrugineus captured in 2012 declined by 86% when compared to total captures for 2010. At the end of 2012, the estimated infestation rate of date palms in Al Ghowaybah was 0.36%, which was below the economic threshold of a 1% infestation rate set by the Directorate of Agriculture supervising the program. It is concluded that the mandatory areawide management program that commenced in Oct. 2009 against R.ferrugineus in Al Ghowaybah had a significant and rapid impact against this pest. © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | University of California at Riverside, Date Palm Research Center and King Faisal University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills 30% failed to fly>1km. Of those weevils flying>1km (n=139), 55% flew>10km, and of these flyers 5% flew>50km in 24h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost 9-13% body weight in 24h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was 27C) flew the longest average distances (25-35km), exhibited highest weight reductions (30%), and greatest mortality rates (80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed).


Hegazy G.,Ain Shams University | Shehata S.T.,Ain Shams University | Salem M.A.,Ain Shams University | Mariy F.M.,Ain Shams University | Aldossary A.A.,Date Palm Research Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The growth of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (B-SA3) in different media and subsequent quantity and viability of produced conidia was determined as well as virulence against the red palm weevil R. ferrungineus. Five ingredients in agar were tested; wheat, corn, barley, oat and soy bean. The standard SDYA medium was used for comparison. The yield of cultured conidial was highest on media prepared by wheat followed by oat and least on barley. Viability of harvested conidia from all of the tested media, as determined by percentage germination ranged between 94.03- 97.6% and relatively comparable with those obtained using SDYA. B. bassiana (BSA3) conidia produced on the tested media although highly infective to R. ferrungineus adults was significantly less than that harvested from SDYA as exhibited by the calculated LC 50 and LT 50. Of the considered ingredients, conidia cultured on wheat medium surpassed those produced on the other media (LC 50 was 2.11×10 7 conidia/ml) followed by soy bean (1.06×10 8 conidia/ml). Least infectivity to the red palm weevil was by conidia produced on oat or corn medium, as LC 50 was 2.81×10 8 and 3.37×10 8 conidia/ml, respectively. Mycosis was apparent on cadavers by the 7th day following death of all treated weevils.


Mafra-Neto A.,ISCA Technologies, Inc. | Fettig C.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Munson A.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rodriguez-Saona C.,Rutgers University | And 6 more authors.
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2014

Since ISCA Technologies' market introduction of Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT®) in 2004, it has been implemented for effective pest control through a variety of techniques, including mating disruption, mass trapping, attract and kill, and repellency. The majority of SPLAT®-based pest control products have targeted lepidopteran (e.g., SPLAT® OFM, for oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta; SPLAT® GM for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar; SPLAT® EC, for carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae) and dipteran pests (e.g., SPLAT® MAT Spinosad ME for tephritid fruit flies, Tephritidae). This chapter will describe a relatively new family of SPLAT® formulations designed to attract or repel coleopteran pests. Following a brief description of the characteristics of SPLAT® and its advantages over other forms of semiochemical-based pest control, each section will begin with an introduction to each product's method of action, specifically mating disruption, attract and kill, and repellency, and will then summarize current research on the application of each technique to combat a specific coleopteran pest: oriental beetle (OrB), Anomala orientalis (SPLAT® OrB & SPLAT® OrB A&K), red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Hook™ RPW), and mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae (SPLAT® Verb). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Faleiro J.R.,Date Palm Research Center | Faleiro J.R.,King Faisal University | El-Shafie H.A.F.,King Faisal University | Ajlan A.M.,King Faisal University | Sallam A.A.,King Faisal University
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2014

Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaeae) is the most important crop of the Arabian Peninsula. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is among the top 3 date producing countries of the world estimated to have over 400 date palm cultivars of which 25 are important and yield 1.3 million tons of dates annually. The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of date palm in the Middle East. We studied the mechanisms of resistance against RPW in 7 major date palm cultivars of the Al-Ahsa oasis in Saudi Arabia viz. 'Khalas', 'Sheshi', 'Reziz', 'Khasab', 'Hatmi', 'Shahal' and 'Gaar' by determining the extent of attraction of female RPW adults to fresh palm volatiles emitted from date palm frond tissue through four-arm choice olfactometer assays. Further, we assessed the degree of antixenosis and antibiotic effects if any by evaluating the number of eggs laid (oviposition), per cent egg hatch and larval tunnelling in these cultivars. Results revealed that the popular date palm cultivar 'Khalas' had the least antixenotic effect on female RPW adults where a high degree of attraction to palm tissue volatiles was recorded, which was statistically similar to the cultivars 'Reziz', 'Sheshi' and 'Hatmi'. The cultivars 'Khasab', 'Shahal' and 'Gaar' exhibited high degree of non-preference (antixenosis). Further, 'Reziz' registered the highest egg lay by RPW and was statistically onpar with the cultivars 'Khalas' and 'Sheshi'. Similar and non-significant values for egg hatch and larval tunnelling in the cultivars tested indicate no antibiotic effects against RPW in the 7 date palm cultivars. Since over 50% of the area in the Al-Ahsa oasis is under the cultivar 'Khalas' with several new plantations in the susceptible age of less than 20 years, RPW is likely to pose a major challenge to date farmers of the region in the years to come. © Florida Entomologist 2014.


Al-Shawaf A.M.,Date Palm Research Center | Al-Shagag A.,Date Palm Research Center | Al-Bagshi M.,Date Palm Research Center | Al-Saroj S.,Date Palm Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2013

The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), (Coleptera: Curculiondae) is a key pest of date palm in the Middle East. This weevil is currently being reported from over 50% of the date growing countries of the world. The date palm Phoenix dactylifera cropped area in the Middle East, has significantly increased during the last two decades where date palm is mainly propagated through offshoots. The red palm weevil larvae are often found in the offshoots, resulting in the spread of the pest and also its re-inoculation where RPW is already controlled. Currently, there are no quarantine protocols to ensure that date palm offshoots which are transported for planting, are free of RPW larvae. In this study, date palm offshoots were sprayed while still attached to the mother palm and also dipped separately with Fipronil 3.5% (Thripguard 35 SCTM) and Imidacloprid 35% (Confidor 350 SCTM) a day after detachment from the mother palm. Fipronil and Imidacloprid were tested at 0.008 % and 0.01%, respectively. Results revealed that dipping gave complete mortality of the larvae. Dipping was significantly better than spraying since spraying resulted in only partial mortality of the larvae. It was also seen that dipping offshoots in Fipronil 0.004% and 0.002% for 30 and 60 min, respectively, resulted in 100% mortality of the larvae tested. Further, toxicity studies resulted in complete mortality of larvae and adults that were exposed to offshoot tissue that was dipped in Fipronil at the above concentrations. For this reason, it is recommended to dip date palm offshoots in 0.004% Fipronil for 30 min before transporting to ensure complete mortality of the hidden larval stages, if any and complete certification and transport of the treated offshoots to the new planting site within 72 h of treatment.


Mazza G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Francardi V.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Simoni S.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Benvenuti C.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 7 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Rhynchophorus palm weevils are large insects belonging to the family Dryophthoridae. All Rhynchophorus species are polyphagous and have a similar life history but some are major pests because of the serious economic damage they cause, in particular to several species of the family Arecaceae. Here we review the natural enemies of Rhynchophorus species in both their native and introduced regions of the world, to assess the possibility of biological control of this taxon. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the well-studied and harmful species Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, about which more information is available, and to its natural enemies in the Mediterranean region, because the impact of this pest in this recently colonized area is particularly remarkable and also the recent trend in species management is looking for indigenous natural enemies.More than 50 natural enemies have been reported to attack Rhynchophorus species, even if most of them are associated to R. ferrugineus (Olivier), highlighting the lack of information on the other species of the genus. Pros and cons of all the biological control agents are then discussed: among the considered organisms, fungi are noteworthy to be considered for inclusion in integrated pest management programs.Overall, our overview underlines the need to increase knowledge on natural enemies of all the species of the genus Rhynchophorus, to isolate more virulent strains and to determine the optimum conditions for the actions of the biocontrol agents. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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