Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute

Ahvaz, Iran

Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute

Ahvaz, Iran
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Latifian M.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2017

The spider mite (Oligonychus afrasiaticus) and the lesser date moth (Batrachedra amydraula Meyrick) are considered as the most significant pests of date palm in Iran. The objective of this study was to review of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics such as the use of biological control in combination with resistant cultivars, cultural and chemical control were implemented. It is speculated that the pest threats status and compare it with other studies for solving these pests using integrated pest management strategies. Augmentation of biological control were conducted by releasing the predator Stethorus gilvifrons and entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis for date mite and the lesser moth respectively. Agricultural practices including soil tillage, fertilization, irrigation, pruning, resistant cultivars, bunch covering and cluster arrangement played have an important share in completion of biological control. The cultivars resistance levels set integrated other control methods with biocontrol. Combining the forecasting model based on meteorological models and pest monitoring based on geostatistical models had been practically utilized as a computer program for decision-making system in date IPM. The socio-economic and extension factors have to be considered for expected adaptation level of date IPM. This program must be economically considered to optimize date production and to minimize pesticides pollutions. Biological control should be considered as the backbone of date palm IPM program. © 2017 Masoud Latifian.

The date palm spider mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a harmful mite pest attacking a wide range of plants worldwide. The most active natural enemy is the tiny black ladybird, Stethorous gilvifrons (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in date palm plantations in Iran. Functional response and optimal foraging of S. governs were studied in the laboratory in order to assess the potentiality of the ladybird as a biological control candidate. The predator preference in terms of prey stage was calculated using the Murdoch model, optimal foraging hypothesis, Zero-one principal and threshold density. Results showed III and II type functional responses for the ladybird adults and larvae, respectively. Handling time estimates of adult ladybirds on spider mite adults and larvae were 0.28 h and 0.34 h, respectively, where ladybird larvae spent 0.27 h and 0.41 h for attacking the spider mite adults and larvae, respectively. Attack rates were higher on adult mite (AM) than on larval mite (LM) because the ladybird predators usually prefer largest prey. The gain rate of ladybird was also affected by different ratios of AM and LM densities in food patches. The ladybird selected food patch with the lowest number of LM. It did not completely disregard feeding on LM. © 2017, Egyptian Society for Biological Control of Pests. All rights reserved.

Arabnezhad H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Bahar M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Mohammadi H.R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Latifian M.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to assess genetic relationships among date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) genotypes grown in different geographical regions by using newly developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Two SSR-enriched genomic libraries including repeat motifs (AG) n and (AAG) n were constructed in date palm. Based on DNA sequences of positive clones, 25 primer pairs were designed of which 22 pairs were able to detect polymorphism in 16 date palm cultivars from Iran, Iraq and Africa. The selected SSR primers amplified a total of 106 alleles with an average of 4.82 alleles per locus among the cultivars and the average values of He and PIC were 0.719 and 0.668, respectively. Neighbor-Joining cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance divided date palm accessions into three major clusters in agreement with their geographical origin. Cluster analysis significantly distinguished African cultivars from Iranian and Iraqi ones, suggesting that the domestication of African date palms have followed a different route than those grown in the Middle-East, an assumption which is supported by Mantel test and Bayesian analysis. The set of date palm SSR loci developed in this study could be an informative marker system for geographic partitioning and genotyping of date palm germplasm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dialami H.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Mohebi A.H.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Khuzestan Province. Among the date palm cultivars in this province 'Sayer' is one of the most commercial cultivars. The low annual average of yield and fruit quality is a problem for date growers. On the other hand, most of the date growers are not applying chemical fertilizers or applying them in improper amounts. Due to the importance of date palm and so the importance of mineral elements especially nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in increasing the yield and fruit quality, determination of optimum levels of them for date palm fertilization is a necessity. In order to increasing yield and fruit quality of 'Sayer' date palm, this experiment with twelve treatments and four replications was carried out in a randomized complete block design on 48 'Sayer' date palm during four years in Khuzestan Province. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen (N 1=700, N 2=1000 and N 3=1300 grams tree -1), two levels of phosphorus (P1=500 and P2=650 grams tree -1) and two levels of potassium (K 1=1000 and K 2=1300 grams tree -1). The sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were urea, triple super phosphate (TSP) and potassium sulfate, respectively. These treatments along with 20 kg of manure and chemical micronutrient fertilizers based on general recommendation were applied for each tree in winter by localized placement method (Chalkood). The number of 20-25 leaflets from the middle of the leaf in the second row was picked up, and mineral nutrients of them were determined, each year. At harvesting time, plant parameters such as yield, concentration of mineral elements in leaf, average of weight, length, diameter and volume of fruit flesh, weight of stone and weight ratio of fruit pulp to its stone, pH, acidity, brix, reducing sugar, total sugar in fruits were determined. Data were analyzed with the MSTATC statistical program and means of data were compared with Duncan's Multiple range test. The results showed that application of 700 g N, 500 g P 2O 5 and 1300 g K 2O for each tree caused the highest yield and fruit quality. Therefore, annual application of these is recommended to date growers.

Torahi A.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Ber (Ziziphus spp.) is the hardiest cultivated fruit tree grown in most of the hot drier parts of many countries for its fresh fruits. Its deep taproot system enables it to survive long periods without water, even when the surface soil completely dries out. Ber trees can grow under conditions of extreme stress from drought, salt and waterlogging and can therefore be grown on degraded or marginal lands. It produces a nutritious fruit, which is rich in the B group of vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin and niacin), vitamin C and β-carotene. Ber can provide sustained production irrespective of occurrence of drought. A number of products are produced for industry from the ber tree. There are different wild Ziziphus species and types distribute all over the southern parts of Iran, and they show a great adaptability to the dry climate conditions of the arid and semi-arid regions. The identification and evaluation of over 2500 ber trees in Khouzestan province was initiated in 2000. Twenty-nine trees have been identified as superior types. Wide variability in tree performance, yield, fruit fresh weight (2.4-19 g), fruit dry weight (0.85-4.7 g), fruit shape, fruit length (10-48 mm), fruit diameter (12-27.5 mm), fruit volume(2.2-20.2 cc), peel colour, presence or absence of seed and seed weight (0-1.3 g) were observed among the genotypes. The growth and maturity (early February-April) of fruits also showed variations among the genotypes.

Hajian S.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The exact origin of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has been lost in history. However, earliest evidence goes as far back as 4000 B.C. in Iran. Date palm is the second most important fruit crop in Iran with more than 185,000 ha of harvested areas, about 880,000 tons annual production and 94,585 tons fruit exported annually according to FAO (2007) which made it the second largest date palm producing country. About 400 among 3000 cultivars of date palm have been reported from Iran and in this regard it is placed first in the world. However, the date palm industry is not considered to be economical due to the use of different local cultivars and it is preferred, therefore to introduce some well-known and more productive universal cultivars. One of them is 'Deglet Noor' compared with 'Sayer' as a main cultivar of Khuzestan province located in southwest of Iran. 27 tissue-cultured plantlets were introduced and investigated at the Ahwaz Agricultural Research Station from 1990 to 2003 in a complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the survival percentages of 'Sayer' and 'Deglet Noor' cultivars were 96 and 70%, respectively. Yield, number of bunches, weight of a berries, water content and pulp to seed weight ratio of 'Deglet Noor' fruits were higher than for 'Sayer'. Number of strands per bunch, number of fruits per strand, length, diameter, volume, shape and color of fruits of both cultivars were approximately the same. However, total sugar concentration of 'Deglet Noor' and 'Sayer' fruits was 64.5 and 75.6%, respectively. Hence 'Deglet Noor' has good production and is recommended for Khuzestan province but its quality may be improved by using suitable pollen sources or by applying selected plant growth regulators. © 2013 ISHS.

Abdulhamid M.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

The Khuzestan Province in Iran hosts many small industrial plants and other sources of heavy metals' emissions. Date palm is an important agricultural crop in the region so this study was done to evaluate the use of various crop species intercropped with date palm to decontaminate the soil and remediate heavy metals pollution in the Khuzestan Province. There is no known study that has identified plants or crop species with tolerance for contaminated soil and a capability to accumulate heavy metals. Therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to assess accumulations of heavy metals in the soil and the effect of date palm in various cropping systems; 2) to assess the removal of heavy metals by root and shoot of alfalfa, sunflower and maize; tests were done on monocultures and intercropping with date palm. Results showed that alfalfa with or without date palm were capable of accumulating cadmium.

Mostaan A.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2016

The trends in the mechanisation of date palm production were reviewed and five key obstacles were identified: structural heterogeneity, impact of economic and social factors, changing nature of production cycle, lack of innovation in crown access, and the lack of mechanisation indices. A general date palm mechanisation framework was developed which could help understanding and studying the obstacles to mechanisation and derive factors through the principal concepts of revenue loss and availability of the skilled palm-tree climbing workers. Increasing the rate of operation rate with fewer workers would advance date palm production. This trend could be encouraged through lower machinery costs and higher worker safety. Potential advantages of ground-based mechanisation methods are presented through analytical formulation of crown access methods. The ground-based approach appears to be more efficient than conventional approaches using palm climbing or elevating because it simplifies the three-dimensional nature of the working environment into less complex two dimensions. Ground-based methods have limitations due to the increased difficulty of operating in crown zone with increasing palm height. An operational index was defined to help develop the mechanisation of date palm cultivation. The index can reveal the height limits affordability for any date palm mechanisation systems. For each specific mechanisation operation there could be a minimum or maximum height limit and/or a height gap. © 2016 IAgrE.

Latifian M.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Rad B.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2015

In this research, Beauveria bassiana Bals mass release efficiency for microbial control of Saw-toothed beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. was studied in Date palm stored condition. For this propose, effects of treatments including B. bassiana fungus spore and methyl bromide fumigation on the Saw-toothed beetle population reduction was studied during the 25 weeks of storage period. Results showed that, population fluctuation of saw-toothed beetle in microbial control (χ2= 9752.72) and methyl bromide fumigation (χ2= 2281.47) treatments had significant difference. Freedman and Kendal concordance test also showed significant difference between microbial control and Methyl Bromide fumigation. The microbial control treatment acted in population density dependent manner and caused pest population reduction so that the control efficiency always was near to 60% and the highest level of it was 80% that occurred on the 3rd month of storage period. Maximum efficiency of methyl bromide treatment was about 90%. The efficiency of this treatment was reduced from the second month onwards so that the repetition of control operation was necessary. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Latifian M.,Date Palm and Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

This research has been carried out in Khuzestan province of Iran, to evaluate the effects of cultural practices on the lesser date moth infestation in date palm. Incidentally cluster-sampling and survey research method were applied. Sampling society divided to 30 plots then one sample was selected randomly in each plot. Fifteen trees were selected randomly in each plot and their infestations were evaluated. Different cultural management factors including tillage, fertilization, irrigation, pruning, chemical control, bunch covering and bunch arrangement were evaluated using questionnaire data. Correlation analyses were performed, and then management factors that had significant correlation with pest infestation were used for further multiple regression analysis. Based on correlation analysis, it is found that, bunch remnant pruning (r =-0.61), bunch covering (r =-0.55) and chemical control (r =-0.51) had suitable effects on decreasing the lesser date moth infestation. Multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of chemical control (cc), bunch remnant pruning (bp) and bunch covering (bc) increased respectively and sum of effects decreased the pest infestation. The ultimate formula of the model is % infestation = 1.664-0.464cc-0.427bp-0.234bc (and Durbinwatsonstatistic= 1.73). Integrated effects of all three factors together are better than the effects of each alone.

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