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Kodama Y.,National Institute of Genetics | Mashima J.,National Institute of Genetics | Kosuge T.,National Institute of Genetics | Katayama T.,Database Center for Life Science | And 7 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

The DNA Data Bank of Japan Center (DDBJ Center; http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) maintains and provides public archival, retrieval and analytical services for biological information. Since October 2013, DDBJ Center has operated the Japanese Genotypephenotype Archive (JGA) in collaboration with our partner institute, the National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. DDBJ Center provides the JGA database system which securely stores genotype and phenotype data collected from individuals whose consent agreements authorize data release only for specific research use. NBDC has established guidelines and policies for sharing human-derived data and reviews data submission and usage requests from researchers. In addition to the JGA project, DDBJ Center develops Semantic Web technologies for data integration and sharing in collaboration with the Database Center for Life Science. This paper describes the overview of the JGA project, updates to the DDBJ databases, and services for data retrieval, analysis and integration. © The Author(s) 2014.

Kim J.D.,Database Center for Life Science
BMC bioinformatics | Year: 2012

The Genia task, when it was introduced in 2009, was the first community-wide effort to address a fine-grained, structural information extraction from biomedical literature. Arranged for the second time as one of the main tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011, it aimed to measure the progress of the community since 2009, and to evaluate generalization of the technology to full text papers. The Protein Coreference task was arranged as one of the supporting tasks, motivated from one of the lessons of the 2009 task that the abundance of coreference structures in natural language text hinders further improvement with the Genia task. The Genia task received final submissions from 15 teams. The results show that the community has made a significant progress, marking 74% of the best F-score in extracting bio-molecular events of simple structure, e.g., gene expressions, and 45% ~ 48% in extracting those of complex structure, e.g., regulations. The Protein Coreference task received 6 final submissions. The results show that the coreference resolution performance in biomedical domain is lagging behind that in newswire domain, cf. 50% vs. 66% in MUC score. Particularly, in terms of protein coreference resolution the best system achieved 34% in F-score. Detailed analysis performed on the results improves our insight into the problem and suggests the directions for further improvements.

Term clustering, by measuring the string similarities between terms, is known within the natural language processing community to be an effective method for improving the quality of texts and dictionaries. However, we have observed that chemical names are difficult to cluster using string similarity measures. In order to clearly demonstrate this difficulty, we compared the string similarities determined using the edit distance, the Monge-Elkan score, SoftTFIDF, and the bigram Dice coefficient for chemical names with those for non-chemical names. Our experimental results revealed the following: (1) The edit distance had the best performance in the matching of full forms, whereas Cohen et al. reported that SoftTFIDF with the Jaro-Winkler distance would yield the best measure for matching pairs of terms for their experiments. (2) For each of the string similarity measures above, the best threshold for term matching differs for chemical names and for non-chemical names; the difference is especially large for the edit distance. (3) Although the matching results obtained for chemical names using the edit distance, Monge-Elkan scores, or the bigram Dice coefficients are better than the result obtained for non-chemical names, the results were contrary when using SoftTFIDF. (4) A suitable weight for chemical names varies substantially from one for non-chemical names. In particular, a weight vector that has been optimized for non-chemical names is not suitable for chemical names. (5) The matching results using the edit distances improve further by dividing a set of full forms into two subsets, according to whether a full form is a chemical name or not. These results show that our hypothesis is acceptable, and that we can significantly improve the performance of abbreviation-full form clustering by computing chemical names and non-chemical names separately. In conclusion, the discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names may be a simple yet effective way to improve the performance of term clustering.

Naito Y.,Database Center for Life Science | Hino K.,University of Tokyo | Bono H.,Database Center for Life Science | Bono H.,National Institute of Genetics | Ui-Tei K.,University of Tokyo
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

CRISPRdirect is a simple and functional web server for selecting rational CRISPR/Cas targets from an input sequence. The CRISPR/Cas system is a promising technique for genome engineering which allows target-specific cleavage of genomic DNA guided by Cas9 nuclease in complex with a guide RNA (gRNA), that complementarily binds to a ∼20 nt targeted sequence. The target sequence requirements are twofold. First, the 5′-NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence must be located adjacent to the target sequence. Second, the target sequence should be specific within the entire genome in order to avoid off-target editing. CRISPRdirect enables users to easily select rational target sequences with minimized off-target sites by performing exhaustive searches against genomic sequences. The server currently incorporates the genomic sequences of human, mouse, rat, marmoset, pig, chicken, frog, zebrafish, Ciona, fruit fly, silkworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis, rice, Sorghum and budding yeast. © The Author 2014.

Iwasaki W.,University of Tokyo | Yamamoto Y.,Database Center for Life Science | Takagi T.,University of Tokyo | Takagi T.,Database Center for Life Science | Takagi T.,National Institute of Genetics
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

In this paper, we describe a server/client literature management system specialized for the life science domain, the TogoDoc system (Togo, pronounced Toe-Go, is a romanization of a Japanese word for integration). The server and the client program cooperate closely over the Internet to provide life scientists with an effective literature recommendation service and efficient literature management. The content-based and personalized literature recommendation helps researchers to isolate interesting papers from the "tsunami" of literature, in which, on average, more than one biomedical paper is added to MEDLINE every minute. Because researchers these days need to cover updates of much wider topics to generate hypotheses using massive datasets obtained from public databases or omics experiments, the importance of having an effective literature recommendation service is rising. The automatic recommendation is based on the content of personal literature libraries of electronic PDF papers. The client program automatically analyzes these files, which are sometimes deeply buried in storage disks of researchers′ personal computers. Just saving PDF papers to the designated folders makes the client program automatically analyze and retrieve metadata, rename file names, synchronize the data to the server, and receive the recommendation lists of newly published papers, thus accomplishing effortless literature management. In addition, the tag suggestion and associative search functions are provided for easy classification of and access to past papers (researchers who read many papers sometimes only vaguely remember or completely forget what they read in the past). The TogoDoc system is available for both Windows and Mac OS X and is free. The TogoDoc Client software is available at http://tdc.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/, and the TogoDoc server is available at https://docman.dbcls.jp/pubmed_recom. © 2010 Iwasaki et al.

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