Data Management Services Inc.

Frederick, MD, United States

Data Management Services Inc.

Frederick, MD, United States

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-- Scope e-Knowledge Center, an award winning services partner to publishers and information providers worldwide, will be attending and presenting at the Society for Scholarly Publishing meeting, May 31 - June 2 in Boston, Massachusetts USA.A primary focus for Scope at the meeting will be its suite of services designed to enhance the discovery and users experience with scholarly book content. The offering, called "ConSCIse," combines advanced technology with expert subject curation to develop abstracts, keywords and other granular metadata to streamline search, increase the speed and accuracy of discovery, and expand opportunities for monetizing content.Representatives from Scope will present at two conference sessions: 1) Session 1C (Thursday 10:30am) -- "Changes in Academic Book Publishing Models," and 2) Plenary Previews Session (Friday 9am) -- "New and Noteworthy Product Presentations.""The discovery, user experience, and monetization of book content continues to be an important focus for both primary scholarly publishers as well as secondary publishers and other aggregators,"notes Tram Venkatraman, President of Scope e-Knowledge Center. "Publishers need to increase their ROI; authors seek more exposure and recognition for their work; users expect enhanced functionality. ConSCIse combines the subject expertise and technical scalability to enrich book content to facilitate this in a flexible, cost effective offshore model."Scope e-Knowledge also offers related services such as taxonomy and ontology development, deep indexing and tagging of content and data assets, web crawling and data harvesting, and metadata enhancement.SSP attendees can meet with Scope e-Knowledge representatives at Booth 'C' next to Table 5 in the Exhibit Hall. Contact Rich Kobel, VP of Business Development, rkobel@scopeknowledge.com, to schedule a discussion.Scope, a Quatrro Global Services company, is an award-winning provider of outsourced, costeffective Content Enhancement Services, Data Management Services, Business Research Services and Patent Analytics for various clients across the globe. Scope, a niche knowledge services provider, has employees from various educational backgrounds and experience delivering knowledge solutions across multiple industry verticals and domains. Scope fulfils customer needs by leveraging its experience and capabilities using in-house developed proprietary technology solutions and platforms for service delivery as well as its internal needs. Scope is also the publisher of the daily newsletter Knowledgespeak, a comprehensive news service focusing on the STM information industry.Vice President, Business Development,USAScope e-Knowledge Center+1 631 375 1555Associate Vice President, Business Development,UK & EuropeScope e-Knowledge Center+44 770 203 6704Deborah@scopeknowledge.comwww.scopeknowledge.com


News Article | May 29, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

NEW YORK, May 29, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Contract Research Outsourcing in US$ Million by the following Service Segments: Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research, and Clinical Research. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2022. Also, a six-year historic analysis is provided for these markets. Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 115 companies including many key and niche players such as - Albany Molecular Research, Inc. - Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. - Chiltern International Ltd. - ICON plc Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONS Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations Disclaimers Data Interpretation & Reporting Level Quantitative Techniques & Analytics Product Definitions and Scope of Study II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW Outsourcing of R&D Projects to Propel CROs Services Market Growth Drivers in a Nutshell Evolving Macro Trends Driving CRO Demand CROs to Significantly Drive Outsourcing Penetration Focus on Efficient, Quality Services to Drive Specialty CROs Market Rise in Investments to Boost Growth Key Therapeutic Areas of Clinical Trial Research Table 1: Global Clinical Trial Services Market by Therapeutic Area: 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Primary Factors Influencing CRO Market Pharma and Biotech Companies to Increase Dependence on CROs Outlook Notable Regional Developments Future Model of CRO 2. COMPETITIVE SCENARIO CRO - A Highly Fragmented Market Table 2: Leading Players in the Global Contract Research Outsourcing Market (2016E): Percentage Breakdown of Revenues by Player (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 3: Percentage Breakup of Life Sciences Revenues (2016) of Major Players by Service Type- Preclinical, Phase I, Phase IIA, Phase IIB, Phase III, Phase IV/ Post-Approval, Central Lab and Others Large CROs Seek the Inorganic Growth Route Global CRO Marketspace - A Review of the M&A Activity in the Recent Years Select M&A Activity in the Global CRO Market Noteworthy Contracts of Major CROs CROs Adept with New Technologies to See More Business in Future Streamlining Development of Novel Trial Designs CROs with End-to End Capabilities in Demand Key Opportunities for CROs Technological Superiority - A Definite Advantage Strategies and Tactical Programs for CROs Survival Strategies in Mature CRO Markets Exit from the Industry Expand Scale Capture Niche Segments Strategies to Tap Opportunities in Growing Markets Mobilize Funds Expand Other Services Upgrade Technological and Knowledge Base Form Sub-Contracts or Regional Alliances 3. GROWTH DRIVERS, MARKET TRENDS & ISSUES Increased Spend on R&D Outsourcing Table 4: Global Pharmaceutical R&D Spending (US$ Billion) for the Years 2010 through 2017 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 5: Percentage Breakdown of Total Number of Compounds in Pipeline by Phase for Pre-Clinical, Phase I, Phase II and Phase III: 2016E (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Enhancing Site Selection and Patient Enrollment CROs Enter into Alliances to Improve Efficiencies Adoption of Digital Technologies Gains Pace Rising Late-Stage Services Demand and Budget Restraints Drive Market Growth Toxicology Services Gain Notable Attention Pharma Companies Enter into Licensing Agreements with Biotech Companies for New Drug Discovery - A Mutually Beneficial Strategy Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical Trends to Support CRO Penetration Table 6: Global Biopharma % R&D Outsourcing (2014-2020) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 7: New FDA Drug Approvals (2010-2016): Breakdown of Number of Approvals by Type for New Molecular Entity (NME) and Biologic License Application (BLA) Approvals (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Focus on Regulatory Oversight and Enhanced Transparency Bodes Well for CROs eClinical Solutions Gain Traction Other Noteworthy Market Trends CROs Monetize Data Service Differentiation - A Sustaining Strategy CROs Tie Up with Diagnostic Companies for Patients Research Networks Move to Cloud Application of Mobile Devices to Collect Real Time Data Gains Ground CROs Provide Exclusive Offers to Lure Big Pharma Challenges Faced by Contract Research Organizations On-shore versus Offshore CRO Business Cutthroat Competition among CROs Management of Clinical Investigation Cost Containment Safety Concerns on Clinical Trials Pipeline Blocks Surging Global Population Offers Increased Growth Opportunities Table 8: Top 25 Countries Worldwide in Terms of Population: 2015 & 2016 (In Million) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Aging Population Boosts Opportunities for CRO Table 9: Global Population Statistics for the 65+ Age Group (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 10: Comparison of Aging Population by Country (1980, 2015 & 2050): Percentage Share of Population Aged Above-65 Years of the Overall Population for Select Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Increasing Healthcare Expenditure to Spur Demand for Generics Table 11: Healthcare Spending as a Percentage of GDP by Region (2016E) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4. CONTRACT RESEARCH OUTSOURCING - AN INSIGHT Concept Contract Research Organizations (CRO) Contract Research Outsourcing Major CRO Services Ancillary CRO Services Advantages from CRO Drug Discovery Pre-Clinical Studies Clinical Research - Factors Encouraging CRO Services at Various Phases Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV 5. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY WuXi AppTec Takes Over HD Biosciences Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings to Acquire Pharmaceutical Product Development PRA Health Sciences and Takeda Pharmaceutical Inks New Partnership AMRI Enters into Alliance with Bruker Daltonics and HighRes Biosolutions Pharmaceutical Product Development Establishes Rare Disease and Pediatric Center of Excellence Pharmaceutical Product Development to Start Clinical Research Unit in Las Vegas Bracket Acquires CLINapps PAREXEL International to Acquire ExecuPharm Cinven to Takeover BioClinica ICON to Takeover Clinical Research Management Pharmaceutical Product Development Acquires Evidera Velocity Fund Partners Acquires Indipharm Bioclinica Snaps Up Compass Research Charles River Laboratories International Takes Over Agilux Laboratories Charles River Laboratories International Snaps Up Blue Stream Laboratories Charles River Laboratories International Acquires WIL Research Pharmaron Announces the Acquisition of Quotient Bioresearch Amulet Capital Partners Acquires SynteractHCR Holdings IMS Health Merges with Quintiles Almac Clinical Technologies Enters into Partnership with inVentiv Health CSSi LifeSciences Unveils Fully Integrated Medical Device CRO Lovelace Biomedical Commences Operations as Preclinical CRO PAREXEL International Inks Services Agreement with Pfizer BioDuro Commences Operations as a Contract Research and Manufacturing Firm Charles River Laboratories International Forms Partnership with BioMotiv Laboratory Corporation of America Acquires Covance Charles River Laboratories International Snaps Up Oncotest Chiltern Acquires Theorem Clinical Research Charles River Laboratories International Takes Over Celsis International Albany Molecular Research Unveils Integrated Drug Discovery Center 6. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS Albany Molecular Research, Inc. (USA) Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (USA) Chiltern International Ltd. (UK) ICON plc (Ireland) INC Research, LLC (USA) InVentiv Health, Inc. (USA) Jubilant Biosys Ltd. (India) Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings (USA) PAREXEL International Corp. (USA) Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC. (USA) Pharmaron (China) PRA Health Sciences, Inc. (USA) Quintiles IMS Holdings, Inc. (USA) Ricerca Biosciences LLC (USA) Sygnature Discovery Limited (UK) SynteractHCR (USA) WuXi AppTec (China) 7. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE Table 12: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 13: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 14: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 15: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 16: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 17: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Drug Discovery by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 18: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 19: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 20: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Preclinical Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 21: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 22: World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 23: World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing for Clinical Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan) and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III. MARKET 1. THE UNITED STATES A.Market Analysis Outlook Drug Developers Rely on CROs to Improve Trial Efficiency and Cost Savings Trial Services Witness Higher Demand Strong Demand for Data Management Services Focus on Innovation and Productivity CROs Focus on Adaptive Clinical Trials Risk-based Monitoring Catches Pace Strategic Corporate Developments Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 24: US Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 25: US Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 26: US 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 2. CANADA Market Analysis Table 27: Canadian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 28: Canadian Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 29: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 3. JAPAN A.Market Analysis Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 30: Japanese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 31: Japanese Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 32: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4. EUROPE A.Market Analysis Outlook Providers Expand Services in Downstream Drug Development Strategic corporate developments Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 33: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 34: European Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 35: European 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5. ASIA-PACIFIC A.Market Analysis Outlook Asia-Pacific to Push up Volume Share in CRO Market R&D Outsourcing in Life Sciences on Rise Focus on Select Regional Markets China Market with Strong Growth Potential India Australia Popular Destination for Early Phase Clinical Trials Cost Savings through Tax Incentives Supportive Regulatory Framework Government Focus on Reducing Cost and Time Superior Clinical Trial Quality Strategic Corporate Development Key Players B.Market Analytics Table 36: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 37: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 38: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 39: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 40: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 41: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 6. REST OF WORLD A.Market Analysis Outlook Providers with Specialized Research Techniques to Boost Latin American CRO Market B.Market Analytics Table 42: Rest of World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 43: Rest of World Historic Review for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenue Figures in US$ Million for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 44: Rest of World 14-Year Perspective for Contract Research Outsourcing by Service Type - Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Drug Discovery, Preclinical Research and Clinical Research Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) IV. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE Total Companies Profiled: 115 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 120) The United States (47) Canada (5) Japan (1) Europe (27) - France (2) - Germany (6) - The United Kingdom (3) - Spain (1) - Rest of Europe (15) Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (35) Latin America (4) Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910444/Global-Contract-Research-Outsourcing-Services.html About Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. http://www.reportlinker.com __________________________ Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-contract-research-outsourcing---services-300465052.html


Del Prete G.Q.,Laboratory Animal science Program | Oswald K.,Laboratory Animal science Program | Lara A.,Laboratory Animal science Program | Shoemaker R.,Laboratory Animal science Program | And 21 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (>30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n5) or saline (n3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Henrich C.J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Henrich C.J.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Budhu A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Yu Z.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2013

The cancer stem cell marker, EpCAM, is an important indicator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation and a functional component of hepatocellular tumor-initiating cells. A high-throughput screening assay was developed to identify inhibitors of EpCAM-dependent growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) HCC cell lines were assessed for differential sensitivity to a Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor. Libraries comprising 22 668 pure compounds and 107 741 crude or partially purified natural product extracts were tested, and 12 pure compounds and 67 natural product extracts were identified for further study. Three active compounds and the positive control were further characterized in terms of effects on EpCAM expression. Treatment of EpCAM(+) Hep3B cells resulted in loss of EpCAM expression as assessed by flow cytometry. This reduction was incomplete (most cells continued to express EpCAM), but resulted in generation of cell populations expressing lower levels of EpCAM. Sublethal concentrations (~IC50) reduced median EpCAM expression to 28% of control after 1 day and 19% of control after 2 days. Reduction in EpCAM expression preceded growth inhibition suggesting that a threshold of EpCAM expression may be required for growth of EpCAM-dependent cells. The identification of compounds with a variety of possible molecular targets suggests a likelihood of multiple mechanisms for modulation of EpCAM-dependent cell growth. The cancer stem cell marker, EpCAM, is an important indicator of Wnt-β-catenin signaling activation and a functional component of hepatocellular tumor initiating cells. A high-throughput screening assay idenified inhibitors of EpCAM-dependent growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Several of these inhibitors were found to concomitantly inhibit expression of surface EpCAM, consisent with a requirement of EpCAM expression for continued cell growth. Further development inhibitors will provide additional insight into control of EpCAM expression and characteristics of hepatocellular cancer stem cells.© 2013 John Wiley and Sons A/S.


Desimmie B.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Burdick R.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Izumi T.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Doi H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 12 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2016

Although APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases A3G, A3F, A3D and A3H are packaged into virions and inhibit viral replication by inducing G-to-A hypermutation, it is not known whether they are copackaged and whether they can act additively or synergistically to inhibit HIV-1 replication. Here, we showed that APOBEC3 proteins can be copackaged by visualization of fluorescently-tagged APOBEC3 proteins using single-virion fluorescence microscopy. We further determined that viruses produced in the presence of A3G + A3F and A3G + A3H, exhibited extensive comutation of viral cDNA, as determined by the frequency of G-to-A mutations in the proviral genomes in the contexts of A3G (GG-to-AG) and A3D, A3F or A3H (GA-to-AA) edited sites. The copackaging of A3G + A3F and A3G + A3H resulted in an additive increase and a modest synergistic increase (1.8-fold) in the frequency of GA-to-AA mutations, respectively. We also identified distinct editing site trinucleotide sequence contexts for each APOBEC3 protein and used them to show that hypermutation of proviral DNAs from seven patients was induced by A3G, A3F (or A3H), A3D and A3G + A3F (or A3H). These results indicate that APOBEC3 proteins can be copackaged and can comutate the same genomes, and can cooperate to inhibit HIV replication. © 2016 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

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