Vergara C.,University of Chile |
Saavedra J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso |
Saavedra J.,Data Applied |
Saenz C.,University of Chile |
And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang K.,University of Waterloo |
Liu Z.,Data Applied |
Jia X.,City University of Hong Kong |
Shen X.S.,University of Waterloo
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia | Year: 2016
With the ever-increasing demands on multimedia applications, cloud computing, due to its economical but powerful resources, is becoming a natural platform to process, store, and share multimedia contents. However, the employment of cloud computing also brings new security and privacy issues as few public cloud servers can be fully trusted by users. In this paper, we focus on how to securely share video contents to a certain group of people during a particular time period in cloud-based multimedia systems, and propose a cryptographic approach, a provably secure time-domain attribute-based access control (TAAC) scheme, to secure the cloud-based video content sharing. Specifically, we first propose a provably secure time-domain attribute-based encryption scheme by embedding the time into both the ciphertexts and the keys, such that only users who hold sufficient attributes in a specific time slot can decrypt the video contents. We also propose an efficient attribute updating method to achieve the dynamic change of users' attributes, including granting new attributes, revoking previous attributes, and regranting previously revoked attributes. We further discuss on how to control those video contents that can be commonly accessed in multiple time slots and how to make special queries on video contents generated in previous time slots. The security analysis and performance evaluation show that TAAC is provably secure in generic group model and efficient in practice. © 2016 IEEE.
Cai K.-Y.,Beihang University |
Cao P.,CAS Beijing Institute of Applied Physics And Computational Mathematics |
Dong Z.,Data Applied |
Liu K.,CAS Beijing Institute of Applied Physics And Computational Mathematics
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2010
Software reliability testing is concerned with the quantitative relationship between software testing and software reliability. Our previous work develops a mathematically rigorous modeling framework for software reliability testing. However the modeling framework is confined to the case of perfect debugging, where detected defects are removed without introducing new defects. In this paper the modeling framework is extended to the case of imperfect debugging and two models are proposed. In the first model it is assumed that debugging is imperfect and may make the number of remaining defects reduce by one, remain intact, or increase by one. In the second model it is assumed that when the number of remaining defects reaches the upper bound, the probability that the number of remaining defects is increased by one by debugging is zero. The expected behaviors of the cumulative number of observed failures and the number of remaining defects in the first model show that the software testing process may induce a linear or nonlinear dynamic system, depending on the relationship between the probability of debugging introducing a new defect and that of debugging removing a detected defect. The second-order behaviors of the first model also show that in the case of imperfect debugging, although there may be unbiased estimator for the initial number of defects remaining in the software under test, the cumulative number of observed failures and the current number of remaining defects are not sufficient for precisely estimating the initial number of remaining defects. This is because the variance of the unbiased estimator approaches a non-zero constant as the software testing process proceeds. This may be treated as an intrinsic principle of uncertainty for software testing. The expected behaviors of the cumulative number of observed failures and the number of remaining defects in the second model show that the software testing process may induce a nonlinear dynamic system. However theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, if defects are more often removed from than introduced into the software under test, the expected behaviors of the two models tend to coincide with each other as the upper bound of the number of remaining defects approaches infinity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlton R.,Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research |
Lunacsek O.,Data Applied |
Regan T.,Xcenda |
American Health and Drug Benefits | Year: 2014
Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness affects nearly 20% of the general population and is associated with many medical conditions, including shift work disorder (SWD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and narcolepsy. Excessive sleepiness imposes a significant clinical, quality-of-life, safety, and economic burden on society.Objective: To compare healthcare costs for patients receiving initial therapy with armodafinil or with modafinil for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with OSA, SWD, or narcolepsy.Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of medical and pharmacy claims was conducted using the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database. Patients aged ≥18 years who had a pharmacy claim for armodafinil or for modafinil between June 1, 2009, and February 28, 2012, and had 6 months of continuous eligibility before the index prescription date, as well as International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis for either OSA (327.23), SWD (327.36), or narcolepsy (347.0×) were included i n the study. Patients were placed into 1 of 2 treatment cohorts based on their index prescription and followed for 1 month minimum and 34 months maximum. The annualized all-cause costs were calculated by multiplying the average per-month medical and pharmacy costs for each patient by 12 months. The daily average consumption (DACON) for armodafinil or for modafinil was calculated by dividing the total units dispensed of either drug by the prescription days supply.Results: A total of 5693 patients receiving armodafinil and 9212 patients receiving modafinil were included in this study. A lower DACON was observed for armodafinil (1.04) compared with modafinil (1.47). The postindex mean medical costs were significantly lower for the armodafinil cohort compared with the modafinil cohort after adjusting for baseline differences ($11,363 vs $13,775, respectively; P = .005). The mean monthly drug-specific pharmacy costs were lower for the armodafinil cohort compared with the modafinil cohort ($166 vs $326, respective ly; P <.001). In addition, lower total healthcare costs were observed for the armodafinil cohort compared with the modafinil cohort after correcting for baseline differences ($18,309 vs $23,530, respectively; P <.001).Conclusion: As shown in this analysis, armodafinil may have real-world DACON advantages and may be associated with lower overall healthcare costs compared with modafinil. © 2014 Engage Healthcare Communications, LLC. All rights reserved.
Iamonico D.,Data Applied |
Panitsa M.,University of Western Greece
Acta Botanica Croatica | Year: 2013
The typification of the name Bryonia cretica is investigated and discussed. A specimen from the Clifford Herbarium is designated as the lectotype. The morphology of the species, notes on its cytology and geographical distribution and ecological features are also treated. © 2013 by Acta Botanica Croatica, the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. All rights reserved.