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Shin S.,Data and Society
Journal of the Korean Medical Association | Year: 2014

The ICT (information and communication technology) paradigm shift, including the burgeoning use of mobile, SNS, and smart devices, has resulted in an explosion of data along with lifestyle changes. We have thus arrived at the age of big data. In the meantime, a number of difficulties have arisen in terms of cost or on the technical side with respect to the use of large quantities of data. However, big data has begun to receive attention with the advent of efficient big data technologies such as Hadoop. Big data is recognized as the 21st century digital resource and new driving force. The governments of the United States, Japan, and other countries around the world have already been actively promoting big data in their national policies. Korea is promotingbig data actively in the public and private sectors according to National Issues of the Creative Economy and the Government 3.0. In this respect, the Korean government published the "Big Data Industry Development Strategy" in December 2013 and began supporting the use of big data in earnest. This article introduces the status and policy of international and domestic utilization of big data in the public sector. In addition, it describes the challenges in terms of technology, human resources, and data for the vitalization of big data collection and analysis in Korea. © Korean Medical Association.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-3.0-03 | Award Amount: 4.06M | Year: 2008

PESI provides standardised and authoritative taxonomic information by integrating and securing Europes taxonomically authoritative species name registers and nomenclators (name databases) that underpin the management of biodiversity in Europe.\nPESI defines and coordinates strategies to enhance the quality and reliability of European biodiversity information by integrating the infrastructural components of four major community networks on taxonomic indexing into a joint work programme. This will result in functional knowledge networks of taxonomic experts and regional focal points, which will collaborate on the establishment of standardised and authoritative taxonomic (meta-) data. In addition PESI will coordinate the integration and synchronisation of the European taxonomic information systems into a joint e-infrastructure and the set up of a common user-interface disseminating the pan-European checklists and associated user-services results\nThe organisation of national and regional focal point networks as projected not only assures the efficient access to local expertise, but is also important for the synergistic promotion of taxonomic standards throughout Europe, for instance to liaison with national governmental bodies on the implementation of European biodiversity legislations. In addition PESI will start with the geographic expansion of the European expertise networks to eventually cover the entire Palaearctic biogeographic region.\nPESI supports international efforts on the development of a Global Names Architecture by building a common intelligent name-matching device in consultation with the principal initiatives (GBIF, TDWG, EoL, SpeciesBase). PESI contributes the development of a unified cross-reference system and provides of high quality taxonomic standards. PESI will further involve the Europe-based nomenclatural services and link the planned joint European taxonomic e-infrastructures middle-layer to the global e-gateway.

Poon M.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Poon M.,Data and Society | Olen H.,Standard Pacific
Public Understanding of Science | Year: 2015

When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition “financial illiteracy,” which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. © The Author(s) 2015

Fukuma S.,Kyoto University | Yamaguchi T.,Tohoku University | Hashimoto S.,Data and Society | Nakai S.,Data and Society | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2012

Patient responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), notoriously difficult to measure, has attracted attention for its association with mortality. We defined categories of ESA responsiveness and attempted to clarify their association with mortality. Cohort study. Data from Japan's dialysis registry (2005-2006), including 95,460 adult hemodialysis patients who received ESAs. We defined 6 categories of ESA responsiveness based on a combination of ESA dosage (low [<6,000 U/wk] or high [<6,000 U/wk]) and hemoglobin level (low [<10 g/dL], medium [10-11.9 g/dL], or high [<12 g/dL]), with medium hemoglobin level and low-dose ESA therapy as the reference category. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality during 1-year follow-up. HRs were estimated using a Cox model for the association between responsiveness categories and mortality, adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, postdialysis weight, dialysis duration, comorbid conditions, serum albumin level, and transferrin saturation. Median ESA dosage (4,500-5,999 U/wk) was used as a cutoff point, and mean hemoglobin level was 10.1 g/dL in our cohort. Of 95,460 patients during follow-up, 7,205 (7.5%) died of all causes, including 5,586 (5.9%) cardiovascular deaths. Low hemoglobin levels and high-dose ESA therapy were both associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HRs, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.09-1.27] for low hemoglobin level with low-dose ESA and 1.44 [95% CI, 1.34-1.55] for medium hemoglobin level with high-dose ESA). Adjusted HRs for high-dose ESA with low hemoglobin level (hyporesponsiveness) were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.82-2.07) for all-cause and 2.02 (95% CI, 1.88-2.17) for cardiovascular mortality. We also noted the interaction between ESA dosage and hemoglobin level on all-cause mortality (likelihood ratio test, P = 0.002). Potential residual confounding from unmeasured factors and single measurement of predictors. Mortality can be affected by ESA responsiveness, which may include independent and interactive effects of ESA dose and hemoglobin level. Responsiveness category has prognostic importance and clinical relevance in anemia management. © 2011 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Zhang G.,Labbatt Family Heart Center | Cai S.,Data and Society | Li J.,Data and Society
Cardiology in the Young | Year: 2012

Objective Hyperglycaemia has been identified as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients, including those who have undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. Tight glucose control with insulin therapy has been shown to improve outcomes, but is not common practice for children following cardiopulmonary bypass. We examined the relationship between blood glucose level and systemic and cerebral oxygen transport in a uniform group of neonates after the Norwood procedure. Methods: Systemic oxygen consumption was measured using respiratory mass spectrometry in 17 neonates for 72 hours postoperatively. Cardiac output, systemic and total pulmonary vascular resistances - including the Blalock-Taussig shunt, systemic oxygen delivery and oxygen extraction ratio, as well as arterial lactate and glucose, were measured at 2- to 4-hour intervals. Cerebral oxygen saturation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Results: Blood glucose levels ranged from 2.8 to 24.6 millimoles per litre. Elevated glucose level showed a significant negative correlation with cardiac output (p = 0.02) and cerebral oxygen saturation (p = 0.03), and a positive correlation with oxygen extraction ratio (p = 0.03). It tended to correlate positively with systemic vascular resistance (p = 0.09) and negatively with oxygen delivery (p = 0.09), but did not correlate with oxygen consumption (p = 0.13). Conclusions: Hyperglycaemia is negatively associated with systemic haemodynamics, oxygen transport, and cerebral oxygenation status in neonates after the Norwood procedure. Further study is warranted to examine tight glucose control with insulin therapy on postoperative systemic and cerebral oxygen transport and functional outcomes in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

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