Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

Darul Iman University, Malaysia

Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
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Nawang N.I.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
2017 2nd International Conference on Anti-Cyber Crimes, ICACC 2017 | Year: 2017

Among the most treasured characteristics of the Internet is arguably its default technical architecture that facilitates online anonymity. This feature is most commonly cherished by Internet users as they are empowered to publish online content anonymously; or in the alternative to conceal their true identities behind fictitious names (pseudonyms). Anonymity is believed to have bolstered freedom of speech as any speakers could freely express their ideas or personal views in the cyber world without the fear of being identified and retaliated. Unfortunately, anonymity poses new challenges to law enforcement agencies as well as victims of cyber-crimes as they would find it difficult to trace and identify the culprits. For that reason, the Malaysian legislature has in 2012 passed a new law, section 114A of the Evidence Act 1950 that has the effect of shifting the burden of proof on the alleged offenders to prove his innocence. The passing of this controversial provision has led to heated debates between the government and human right defenders on the ground that such law seems to be very oppressive and could be easily manipulated by prosecutors in criminal cases as well as claimants in civil suits. By referring to reported cases and judicial decisions, this paper attempts to scrutinize in details section 114A of the Evidence Act 1950 and its implications on the legal system in the country; and ultimately to lend some assistance in unravelling the dispute between the proponents and opponents of the new law. © 2017 IEEE.

Loganathan N.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Taha R.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

This paper explores how carbon taxation and economic growth affect environment hazards in Malaysia using time series data over the period 1974-2010. We applied cointegration and causality approaches to determine the long-term cointegration and direction of causal relationship between these variables. Based on the results, we found the cointegration relationship between the variables. Furthermore, we noted that although Kuznets' theory, i.e. inverted-U shaped curve between economic growth and CO2 emissions is valid for Malaysia, the carbon taxation policy is ineffective to control CO 2 emissions. The causality analysis revealed that there is a bidirectional relationship between carbon tax and CO2 emissions. Economic growth Granger causes CO2 emissions and carbon tax Granger causes economic growth. To enhance the awareness concerning pollution issues, governments should rely on alternative instruments that may give benefit to the taxpayers and reduce pollution, which is the pivotal issue to be tackled globally. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Siti H.N.,National University of Malaysia | Siti H.N.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Kamisah Y.,National University of Malaysia | Kamsiah J.,National University of Malaysia
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The concept of mild chronic vascular inflammation as part of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, most importantly hypertension and atherosclerosis, has been well accepted. Indeed there are links between vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. However, there are still gaps in our understanding regarding this matter that might be the cause behind disappointing results of antioxidant therapy for cardiovascular risk factors in large-scale long-term randomised controlled trials. Apart from the limitations of our knowledge, limitations in methodology and assessment of the body's endogenous and exogenous oxidant-antioxidant status are a serious handicap. The pleiotropic effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammation that are shown by some well-established antihypertensive agents and statins partly support the idea of using antioxidants in vascular diseases as still relevant. This review aims to provide an overview of the links between oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors, importantly focusing on blood pressure regulation and atherosclerosis. In view of the potential benefits of antioxidants, this review will also examine the proposed role of vitamin C, vitamin E and polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases as well as the success or failure of antioxidant therapy for cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Neni W.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare | Year: 2013

We evaluated an epilepsy education programme based on text messaging (SMS). Epilepsy outpatients from three hospitals in Malaysia were randomised into two groups: intervention and control. Patients in the control group were supplied with printed epilepsy educational material while those in the intervention group also received text messages from the Mobile Epilepsy Educational System (MEES). A total of 136 patients completed the study (mean age 31 years; 91% Malay; 51% with an illness duration of more than 5 years). A between-group analysis showed that the awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) about epilepsy did not significantly differ between the groups at baseline(P > 0.05). The intervention patients reported better AKA levels during follow-up compared to the control patients (P < 0.05). A within-group analysis showed that in intervention patients, there were significant improvements in all AKA domains with larger effect sizes (P < 0.01) while control patients also exhibited significant improvement in most domains except for Awareness but with smaller effect sizes. After controlling for possible confounding variables (age, gender, educational qualification, monthly income and baseline mean for each domain), the intervention group still reported significantly higher AKA than the control group particularly in Awareness (P < 0.001) and Total AKA (P = 0.003). There was also significantly better medication adherence and clinic attendance in the intervention group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the addition of the MEES to conventional epilepsy education is effective in improving AKA.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Talib N.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2013

Context Substance abuse has been prevalent in Malaysia for many years and currently represents one of the main concerns to its society. The limitations of conventional therapies have resulted in efforts to explore the potential of complementary therapies in the management of drug addiction. The evidence for auricular acupuncture (AA) as a potential complementary therapy for drug addiction is still limited and inconclusive. Objective The study intended (1) to compare the clinical outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) alone and MMT plus AA (MMT+AA) with regard to the daily methadone dose, number of cigarettes smoked/wk, relapse rates, and withdrawal symptoms; (2) to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) pre- and postintervention; and (3) to determine participants' acceptance of AA therapy. Design The research team designed this study to be prospective, longitudinal, open-labeled, and randomized, with one intervention group (AA group) and one control group. Setting The settings were three MMT centers in Terengganu, Malaysia: (1) the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Center, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah; (2) the MMT Center, Marang Health Clinic; and (3) the MMT Center, Seberang Takir Health Clinic. Participants Participants were individuals who were enrolled in the three MMT programs. Intervention After randomization, the intervention group received MMT+AA while the control group received MMT only. Participants in the AA group underwent concurrent AA sessions for 8 wk. Outcome Measures All outcomes were evaluated using questionnaires that the research team developed and WHOQOL-BREF. Data were analysed employing descriptive and nonparametric statistics (SPSS v16). Results A total of 97, eligible, male patients consented to participation (MMT =42; MMT+AA =55; median age =36.0 y; Malay ethnicity =97.9%). After screening for dropouts, the data from only 69 participants were considered for postintervention analysis (MMT =40; MMT+AA =29). At preintervention, participants differed significantly by HRQoL profile and the frequency of withdrawal symptoms (better for MMT participants). Postintervention, all groups reported significantly reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked and a reduced methadone dose (P<.05), whereas no significant difference was detected for other parameters. No difference for relapse rate was detected between the groups. On separate group analysis, only the number of cigarettes was significantly lower for MMT+AA participants, whereas apart from methadone dose, all other parameters had significantly improved over time in the MMT+AA cohort. The additional AA therapy also demonstrated favorable acceptance and tolerable side effects. Conclusion Findings implied that AA could be beneficial as an adjunct to MMT in managing addiction, but the effectiveness of AA still requires further extensive investigation.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Neni W.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2011

The influence of awareness, knowledge, and attitudes (AKA) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with epilepsy has not been widely established. The aims of this preliminary study were to (1) assess general AKA and HRQoL levels, (2) correlate AKA and HRQoL levels, and (3) compare the HRQoL of patients with epilepsy with different AKA levels. A cross-sectional sample of outpatients with epilepsy were recruited from the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15 employing descriptive and nonparametric statistics. On written consent, included patients completed the Malay AKA Epilepsy and the Malay Quality of Life in Epilepsy-30 (MQOLIE-30) instruments. Across all patients, both AKA levels (median: 80.0, range: 0-170) and overall HRQoL (median 51.5; range 15-97) were moderate. Awareness was significantly correlated only with Seizure Worry (rs=+0.29, p<0.05), whereas Knowledge was not significantly linked to any domain. However, Attitudes was significantly correlated with all domains (rs=+0.35 to +0.47, p<0.01) except Medication Effects and Seizure Worry. Patients with good AKA levels (Total Score ≥ median) experienced significantly better Overall Quality of Life and Cognitive Functioning (p<0.05). Findings showed that AKA may play an important role in influencing patients' HRQoL, suggesting that epilepsy treatment efforts should also focus on enhancing AKA through epilepsy awareness to improve health outcomes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Zakaria N.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting. Methods: CINAHL, PubMed, and EBSCO Host and Science Direct databases were searched for articles related to the use of EOs and/or aromatherapy for nausea and vomiting. Only articles using English as a language of publication were included. Eligible articles included all forms of evidence (nonexperimental, experimental, case report). Interventions were limited to the use of EOs by inhalation of their vapors to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in various conditions regardless of age group. Studies where the intervention did not utilize EOs or were concerned with only alcohol inhalation and trials that combined the use of aromatherapy with other treatments (massage, relaxations, or acupressure) were excluded. Results: Five (5) articles met the inclusion criteria encompassing trials with 328 respondents. Their results suggest that the inhaled vapor of peppermint or ginger essential oils not only reduced the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting but also decreased antiemetic requirements and consequently improved patient satisfaction. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to methodological flaws in the existing research articles and an acute lack of additional research in this area. Conclusions: The existing evidence is encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before confirmation of EOs effectiveness in treating nausea and vomiting can be strongly substantiated. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.

Mohammed J.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2015

A better understanding of the vast range of plankton and their interactions with the marine environment would allow prediction of their large-scale impact on the marine ecosystem, and provide in-depth knowledge on pollution and climate change. Numerous technologies, especially lab-on-a-chip microsystems, are being used to this end. Marine biofouling is a global issue with significant economic consequences. Ecofriendly polymer nanotechnologies are being developed to combat marine biofouling. Furthermore, nanomaterials hold great potential for bioremediation and biofuel production. Excellent reviews covering focused topics in plankton research exist, with only a handful discussing both micro- and nanotechnologies. This work reviews both micro- and nanotechnologies applied to broad-ranging plankton research topics including flow cytometry, chemotaxis/toxicity assays, biofilm formation, marine antifouling/fouling-release surfaces and coatings, green energy, green nanomaterials, microalgae immobilization, and bioremediation. It is anticipated that developments in plankton research will see engineered exploitation of micro- and nanotechnologies. The current review is therefore intended to promote micro-/nanotechnology researchers to team up with limnologists/oceanographers, and develop novel strategies for understanding and green exploitation of the complex marine ecosystem. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2011

Although the popularity of complementary indigenous Malay therapies (CIMT) in general healthcare is undeniable in the Malaysian context today, their usage within the palliative care scenarios remains unexplored. Our study was specifically embarked to determine CIMT's usage pattern, reasons, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differences (users vs. non-users) in a sample of hospice-based palliative patients in Selangor, Malaysia. From the 39 consenting patients (mean age = 56 years; female = 56.4 percent; Malay = 53.8 percent), 38.5 percent were users of CIMT. Dried medicinal roots, herbs and sea cucumber products were the most preferred types of CIMT (53.3 percent). The most common reason cited for usage was because these were "easier and simpler to be administered" (46.7 percent). Although users' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions were more favourable than the non-users, between 30.0-73.3 percent of users remained unsure or had no knowledge regarding CIMT. They also exhibited significantly poorer Physical Symptoms than the non-users (p=0.006), a probable motive for seeking CIMT in the first place. Despite the small sample size, the findings provided some insight into the role of CIMT especially with regard to usage trends and overall well-being among the terminally-ill, of which healthcare professionals should constantly be vigilant of amidst their routine care responsibilities. Copyright © 2011 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

Lua P.L.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Talib N.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the evaluation of addiction program effectiveness which involves changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. This study was conducted from 2007 until 2010 at a rural methadone maintenance treatment center in Malaysia to assess HRQoL outcomes before and after treatment. Fifty-seven respondents completed the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques (SPSS 15). Significant and positive HRQoL impacts were demonstrated. Future studies with larger sample are encouraged. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Copyright © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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