Cui J.,Nanjing Forestry University |
Cui J.,Dare Technology Co. |
Lu X.,Nanjing Forestry University |
Zhou X.,University of Lorraine |
And 6 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2014
• Context: Condensed tannins have been successfully used as substitutes for phenol in the production of resins for wood products. However, the enhancement of the properties of tannin-based resins with nontoxic and cost effective additives is of great interest.• Methods: In the present work, the performance enhancement of tannin-based particleboards with cellulose nanofibers was investigated.• Results: In presence of 2 % of cellulose nanofibers, the viscosity of tannin-based adhesives and the internal bonding strength (IB) of the corresponding particleboards were increased from 350 to 5,462 mPa·s and from 0.85 to 0.98 MPa respectively. The modulus of elastic (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the resins were also notably increased while thickness swelling (TS) of the panels was not affected.• Conclusion: The addition of cellulose nanofibers to tannin adhesives is an effective method for the production of high performance particleboards. Tannin-based adhesive containing 2 % of cellulose nanofibers exhibits the best mechanical strength.Key message: The addition of cellulose nanofibers into tannin-based adhesives notably enhanced the mechanical properties of the wood particleboards produced. The formulation containing 2 % (w/w) of cellulose nanofibers exhibited the best mechanical strength. © 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.
Chen Z.,Nanjing Normal University |
Chen Z.,Dare Technology Co. |
Su S.I.I.,Soochow University of Taiwan
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014
In the context of global climate change, the solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has regained its attention by many governments. The purpose of this paper is to study the coordination mechanisms of the photovoltaic supply chain considering the strategic consumers' behavior under the government's subsidy policies and its impact on the decisions of supply chain stakeholders. A centralized decision model and a revenue sharing contract coordination model for PV supply chain with strategic consumers are respectively formulated and discussed. Using the coordination model and the statistics from the development report of PV industry in the world during 2008-2012, the PV supply chain with monocrystalline modules of 72 solar cells for general power system solutions is analyzed. The analysis has found that revenue sharing is a good coordination mechanism for PV supply chain in the presence of the strategic consumers; while setting a low discount rate and the reduction of modules and assembling costs can increase the utilization of PV systems and the benefit of PV supply chain. The results suggest that governments should set appropriate subsidy policy to encourage PV industry development; the polysilicon module suppliers should enhance the relationship with PV assembler to achieve better coordination and adapt their capacity investment plan and manufacturing schedule to customer demands; in the presence of strategic consumers, the PV assemblers should set appropriate discount rate and share the information with key suppliers to optimize inventory and retail price decision to achieve better coordination; and the strategic consumers should enhance the utilization of PV system to increase their electrical outputs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.