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Daqing, China

Liu S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xu F.-P.,Northeast Agricultural University | Yang Z.-J.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research

Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant present in soil, water, air, and food. Selenium (Se) can antagonize some metal element toxicity including Cd. To investigate the cytotoxicity of Cd and the protective effects of Se on bird immunocytes in vitro, chicken splenic lymphocytes with CdCl 2 (10-6 mol/L), Na2SeO3 (10 -7 mol/L), and the mixture (10-7 mol/L Na 2SeO3 and 10-6 mol/L CdCI2) were incubated for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively. A high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions were observed in Cd treatment group; the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidise (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were significantly lower in Cd treatment group than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In contrast, Se significantly improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced MDA and ROS levels compared to Cd treatment alone group, although not restored to the levels of control group. The population of apoptosis cells demonstrated that Cd induces the apoptosis of chicken splenic lymphocytes; in addition, increased mRNA level of Bak, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) and decreased Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and CaM were observed in Cd treatment group. Se ameliorated ΔΨm and [Ca2+]i for mitochondria function restoring, and Se was able to modulate the expression of relative genes. In conclusion, concurrent treatment with Se reduced the Cd-induced morphological changes and oxidative stress, ion disorder, and apoptosis, suggesting that the toxic effects of Cd on the chicken splenic lymphocytes were partly meliorated by Se. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Shi D.,China Agricultural University | Shi D.,Daqing Normal College | Li L.,China Agricultural University | Zhang J.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology

Chlorophyll (Chl) is the key pigment involved in photosynthesis. Analysis of the expression pattern of Chl metabolic genes will contribute to our understanding of photosynthesis. Also, the genes coding for Chl metabolism are ideal targets for revealing the evolution relationships of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we summarized the Chl metabolic pathway in higher plants and conducted in silico expression analysis of related genes in maize. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the evolution of Chl metabolic genes proceeded in a certain direction. Moreover, the diversity of some rate-limiting enzymes might have played a positive role in the evolution of Chl metabolism. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Wang S.-X.,Nankai University | Yuan G.-X.,Nankai University | Yuan G.-X.,Daqing Normal College | Kendrick R.C.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden

Three new species of the genus Variacma Wang are described from Hong Kong, China: V. hongkongensis sp. nov., V. bifariafera sp. nov. and V. tomentosa sp. nov. The female is recorded for the first time for the genus and the generic characters are redescribed. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to all the known species based on the male genitalia. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source

Qu J.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Daqing Normal College | Zhao F.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Avermectin (AVM) is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for the prevention of parasitic diseases; AVM is the active component of some insecticidal and nematicidal products. Residues of AVM drugs or their metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and ultrastructure in pigeon brain tissues after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d were investigated. The decrease in the mRNA levels of TORC1 and TORC2 and increase in the mRNA levels of LC3, Beclin 1, Dynein, ATG5 and ATG4B and the increase in the protein levels of LC3, Beclin 1 and Dynein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the pigeon brain were observed. The number of autophagic vacuoles in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe increased significantly with the concentration of AVM and the exposure time. We found that the changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and the ultrastructure in the cerebrum were more obvious than in the cerebellum and the optic lobe. The results suggest that AVM could induce autophagy in pigeon brain tissues. The information presented in this study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of AVM-induced autophagy in birds. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Daqing Normal College | Cui Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

The effect of avermectin was studied on King pigeon brain nerve cells by cytotoxicity [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, MTT] and apoptosis [acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) assay, transmission electron microscope (TEM) evaluation, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (δψm), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, caspases activities, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 mRNA expression] within the 2.5-10μgL-1 concentration-range. The results revealed that within the concentrations of 2.5-10μgL-1, avermectin showed obvious cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner to neurons of King pigeon in vitro. Cell viability were 99.93±8.52%, 82.02±4.99% and 78.23±5.67% after 24h of treatment with avermectin at the concentrations of 0, 2.5 and 5μgL-1, which decreased to 56.36±2.17% of 10μgL-1. Treated cells showed typical apoptosis morphological changes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, chromatin condensation, unclear nuclear membrane and decreased/swollen mitochondria. Typical biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis including δψm loss, PS exposure, activations of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, DNA fragmentation were observed too. Moreover, the levels of ROS in the avermectin treatment groups increased significantly compared to control group. Furthermore, the caspase-3 mRNA levels increased significantly following AVM treatment. In conclusion, our experimental results show that avermectin has cytotoxicity to brain neurons of King pigeon in vitro and the mechanism of neurotoxicity induced by avermectin is closely related to apoptosis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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