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České Budějovice, Czech Republic

Mateju J.,Charles University | Mateju J.,Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection of the CR | Ricanova S.,University of South Bohemia | Ricanova S.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2012

Reintroductions are considered an important part of the action plans and recovery strategies of endangered ground squirrel species, but so far little is known about their proper methodology. We collected primary data on 12 European ground squirrel reintroduction projects carried out at 14 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland since 1989. We focused on seven methodological aspects of each reintroduction: selection of release site, method of releasing, date of releasing, origin of released animals, total number of released animals, mean number of released animals per season and reintroduction site management. The method of releasing was found to be the key factor in determining the settlement of animals at the target locality. Only soft releasing methods, i. e. the use of enclosures and/or artificial burrows, ensure that animals remain at the target locality. The other factors significantly determining reintroduction success are the number of released animals per season (at least 23 animals required) and the total number of released animals (a minimum of 60 individuals). Long-term management of the site and regular monitoring of the newly established population are necessary. Our recommendations, based on experience with the successes and failures of previous reintroductions, could largely improve the efficiency of future reintroductions of highly endangered species. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Verner Z.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Verner Z.,University of South Bohemia | Verner Z.,Comenius University | Skodova I.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2013

The respiratory chain of the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei contains the standard complexes I through IV, as well as several alternative enzymes contributing to electron flow. In this work, we studied the function of an alternative NADH : ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH2). Depletion of target mRNA was achieved using RNA interference (RNAi). In the non-induced and RNAi-induced cell growth, membrane potential change, alteration in production of reactive oxygen species, overall respiration, enzymatic activities of complexes I, III and/or IV and distribution of NADH : ubiquinone oxidoreductase activities in glycerol gradient fractions were measured. Finally, respiration using different substrates was tested on digitonin-permeabilized cells. The induced RNAi cell line exhibited slower growth, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lower sensitivity of respiration to inhibitors. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was the only enzymatic activity that has significantly changed in the interfered cells. This elevation as well as a decrease of respiration using NADH was confirmed on digitonin-permeabilized cells. The data presented here together with previously published findings on complex I led us to propose that NDH2 is the major NADH : ubiquinone oxidoreductase responsible for cytosolic and not for mitochondrial NAD + regeneration in the mitochondrion of procyclic T. brucei. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Cejkova A.,University of South Bohemia | Polakova S.,University of South Bohemia | Polakova S.,DAPHNE CR Institute of Applied Ecology
Geochronometria | Year: 2012

Complex of Nature reservation Zbytka is the rest of various fen vegetation in the northeast part of the Czech Republic. It represents an important spring area which provides high quality potable water for more than 150 000 inhabitants. Waterworks utilization was started in the 1960s and the change of land-use practices has had a strong effect on the ecosystem. Oak chronology has been showing different tree growth trends since the start of the waterworks utilization. Also the occurrences of negative pointer years differ markedly before and after initiation of pumping underground water. Dendroclimatological analyses primarily revealed a close relationship between the temperature and tree growth - positive influence of spring and summer temperature. The period 1983-1992 of maximum artesian water pumping is expressed as higher tree-ring increments, but linear model analyses showed that the growth reaction of oak is not due to simple causality between temperature and under-ground water level. The radial increments reacted positively to the combination of high temperature during the vegetation season and low or, the contrary, high depth of underground water level. No direct relationship was detected between tree growth and fluctuation of underground water level; despite of the results dendrochronological data may be useful in historical ground water modelling studies. Results are also crucial for conflict of interests between nature preservation and potable water supply. © 2012 Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland 2012.

Vlk R.,Masaryk University | Balvin O.,Charles University | Kristin A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Marhoul P.,DAPHNE CR Institute of Applied Ecology | Hruz V.,Sprava CHKO Polana
Folia Oecologica | Year: 2012

Numerous animal species which were originally Mediterranean are seen to be spreading through Central Europe. The bush-cricket Meconema meridionale is one of them and it has been known to be spreading mainly in Western Europe. After the first record in late summer of 2008 in the Czech Republic, we checked 44 sites of potential occurrence in the country and 48 in Slovakia. Material was sampled by beating from tree branches and sweeping bushes and small trees. The species was found at 17 localities in the CR and two in Slovakia. The recorded distribution is concentrated in urban environments, connected with traffic or camping. This supports the idea of passive dispersal by cars. The absence of the species in close surroundings of the localities supports the idea of its recent spread over the countries. All the 19 localities are situated in lower altitudes, between 130 and 350 m a.s.l. and the species was found on at least 14 woody species. Morphological parameters of Czech and Slovak specimens are not significantly different from those in original area of distribution.

Kloub M.,Hospital Ceske Budejovice | Holub K.,Hospital Ceske Budejovice | Polakova S.,DAPHNE CR Institute of Applied Ecology
Injury | Year: 2014

Background and purpose: Long term outcome of the treatment of displaced complex fractures of humeral head is rare in the literature especially in greater cohorts. Main purpose of our study was the assessment of long term results of intramedullary nailing of 3-4 part fractures. Patients and methods: 137 patients with 137 three or four-part fractures of the humeral head treated by intramedullary nailing were reassessed after an average follow-up time of 57 (27-93) months. The whole cohort consisted of 85 three-part fractures, 38 four-part fractures and 14 fracture-dislocations. Radiographic and clinical outcome - absolute Constant score (CSabs) and relative Constant score (compared to the contralateral side - CSrel) were evaluated. The rate of complications was recorded. Analysis of the influence of quality of achieved reduction on final functional result and on the development of complications was performed. Results: 125 fractures healed uneventfully. Mean long term CSrel was 81% of the unaffected side. Mean CSrel was 85% in 3-part fractures, 73% in four-part fractures, 80% in three-part fracture-dislocations and 70% in four-part fracture-dislocations. 96 (70%) patients achieved excellent or good results (CSrel higher than 80%), 17 (12.4%) satisfactory results and 24 (17.5%) poor results (CSrel less than 60%). No significant difference was observed in functional results between different age groups. No incidence of non-union was observed, 4 losses of reduction were encountered. We observed 17 cases of complete humeral head necrosis, 14 of them in the group of 4-part fractures. Reduction quality strongly influenced functional result and development of head necrosis. In the group of excellent reduction mean CSrel was 88% and the rate of necrosis was 2%. Moderate reduction quality deteriorated CSrel to 70% and head necrosis rate rose up to 28%. If reduction was poor, mean CS rel was 52% and the rate of complete necrosis rose to 60%. Conclusion: Long term results confirmed nailing as appropriate treatment strategy for all types of humeral head fractures with limitation of excellent reduction in every age group. Moderate or even poor reduction significantly deteriorates functional results and increases rate of complete necrosis of the humeral head. If good reduction cannot be achieved, treatment strategy should be changed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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