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The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most often prescribed drugs in the world. This heterogeneous class of drugs includes aspirin and several other selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. The non-selective NSAIDs are the oldest ones and are called traditional or conventional NSAIDs. The selective NSAIDs are called COX-2 inhibitors. In recent years, the safety of NSAID use in clinical practice has been questioned, especially that of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. The evidence on the increase in cardiovascular risk with the use of NSAIDs is still scarce, due to the lack of randomized and controlled studies with the capacity of evaluating relevant cardiovascular outcomes. However, the results of prospective clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitors present important adverse cardiovascular effects, which include increased risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, kidney failure and arterial hypertension. The risk of these adverse effects is higher among patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease or those at high risk to develop it. In these patients, the use of COX-2 inhibitors must be limited to those for which there is no appropriate alternative and, even in these cases, only at low doses and for as little time as possible. Although the most frequent adverse effects have been related to the selective COX-2 inhibition, the absence of selectiveness for this isoenzyme does not completely eliminate the risk of cardiovascular events; therefore, all drugs belonging to the large spectrum of NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consideration of the risk/benefit balance.

Costa R.A.,Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology | Costa M.A.,Case Western Reserve University | Moussa I.D.,The Texas Institute
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2011

This repot reviews the angiographic and intravascular (IVUS) assessment of coronary bifurcation lesions. Overall, bifurcation lesion anatomy and morphology is critical for technical decision making, and a key factor for successful bifurcation PCI. Optimal viewing is essential for proper angiographic assessment, especially for evaluation of the degree of SB involvement. Current classifications based on the presence or absence of significant angiographic stenosis within the three segments of the bifurcation anatomy may not provide sufficient anatomic and morphologic information to guide technical decision making. Dedicated 2D bifurcation quantitative coronary angiography with segmental analysis of the bifurcation provides greater accuracy for quantification of the degree of stenosis in the PV and especially the SB ostium. IVUS assessment at preprocedure provides valuable information regarding vessel size, and plaque morphology and distribution (particularly in relation to the SB ostium) that may help select treatment strategy. At postprocedure, IVUS imaging evaluates stent apposition within the stented segment(s) and the appropriateness of stent expansion particularly at the SB ostium, what may impact long-term outcomes. © Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2011.

Background: Evaluation of pulmonary artery pressure just before transplanting with sodium nitroprusside may allow conversion to orthotopic technique. Methods: Between 1992 and 2007, 228 transplants were performed systematically and this was used in seven patients with preoperative hemodynamic evaluation: Pre NP (mmHg) Post NP (mmHg) Systolic systemic blood pressure (PSAS) 108-78 (101.7 ± 10.9) 90-74 (79.5 ± 15.2) pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) 88-51 (69.8 ± 13.2) 70-40 (57.8 ± 9.9) Gradient transpulmonary (GTP) 16-11 (14.2 ± 1.7) 14-11 (12.4 ± 1.2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR/w) 7.9 to 4.8 (6.2 ± 1 0) 5.9-4.1 (5.0 ± 0.8). Results: The intraoperative findings were: Pre NP (mmHg) e Post NP (mmHg), respectively, PSAS 91-78 (8.5 ± 5.2) and 65-59 (4.2 ± 63.8) (P = 0.017), decrease 19.9%, decrease 29.3%; PSAP 71-52 (61.8 ± 6.1) and 43-32 (37.5 ± 3.3) (P = 0.018), decrease 28%, decrease 41%. In light of these data, patients were transplanted by orthotopic technique not being observed mortality in the short and long-term evolution from 5 months to 6 years. Conclusion: This methodology allowed the conversion of the technique for heterotopic orthotopically, with good early and late otcomes.

Haude M.,Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH | Ince H.,Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain and Am Urban | Abizaid A.,Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology | Toelg R.,Herzzentrum Segeberger Kliniken GmbH | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Background Absorbable scaffolds were designed to overcome the limitations of conventional, non-absorbable metal-based drug-eluting stents. So far, only polymeric absorbable scaffolds are commercially available. We aimed to assess the safety and performance of a novel second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold (DREAMS 2G) in patients with de-novo coronary artery lesions. Methods We did this prospective, multicentre, non-randomised, first-in-man trial at 13 percutaneous coronary intervention centres in Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Germany, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Eligible patients had stable or unstable angina or documented silent ischaemia, and a maximum of two de-novo lesions with a reference vessel diameter between 2·2 mm and 3·7 mm. Clinical follow-up was scheduled at months 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36. Patients were scheduled for angiographic follow-up at 6 months, and a subgroup of patients was scheduled for intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and vasomotion assessment. All patients were recommended to take dual antiplatelet treatment for at least 6 months. The primary endpoint was in-segment late lumen loss at 6 months. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01960504. Findings Between Oct 8, 2013, and May 22, 2015, we enrolled 123 patients with 123 coronary target lesions. At 6 months, mean in-segment late lumen loss was 0·27 mm (SD 0·37), and angiographically discernable vasomotion was documented in 20 (80%) of 25 patients. Intravascular ultrasound assessments showed a preservation of the scaffold area (mean 6·24 mm2 [SD 1·15] post-procedure vs 6·21 mm2 [1·22] at 6 months) with a low mean neointimal area (0·08 mm2 [0·09]), and optical coherence tomography did not detect any intraluminal mass. Target lesion failure occurred in four (3%) patients: one (<1%) patient died from cardiac death, one (<1%) patient had periprocedural myocardial infarction, and two (2%) patients needed clinically driven target lesion revascularisation. No definite or probable scaffold thrombosis was observed. Interpretation Our findings show that implantation of the DREAMS 2G device in de-novo coronary lesions is feasible, with favourable safety and performance outcomes at 6 months. This novel absorbable metal scaffold could be an alternative to absorbable polymeric scaffolds for treatment of obstructive coronary disease. Funding Biotronik AG. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Mucormycosis is a rare but emerging fungal infection complicating solid organ transplantation (SOT), with a cumulative incidence of around 2% during the first year after SOT. The associated mortality rate is high, and surgical debridement is frequently required as part of the treatment along with antifungal therapy based mostly on amphotericin B formulations, We describe here an unusual case of hepatic mucormycosis in a liver transplant recipient that was successfully treated with clinical therapy based on liposomal amphotericin B followed by posaconazole, without surgical resection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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