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Palaiseau, France

Derrien M.,Danone Nutricia Research | Belzer C.,Wageningen University | de Vos W.M.,University of Helsinki
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Akkermansia muciniphila is an intestinal bacterium that was isolated a decade ago from a human fecal sample. Its specialization in mucin degradation makes it a key organism at the mucosal interface between the lumen and host cells. Although it was isolated quite recently, it has rapidly raised significant interest as A. muciniphila is the only cultivated intestinal representative of the Verrucomicrobia, one of the few phyla in the human gut that can be easily detected in phylogenetic and metagenome analyses. There has also been a growing interest in A. muciniphila, due to its association with health in animals and humans. Notably, reduced levels of A. muciniphila have been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and metabolic disorders, which suggests it may have potential anti-inflammatory properties. The aims of this review are to summarize the existing data on the intestinal distribution of A. muciniphila in health and disease, to provide insight into its ecology and its role in founding microbial networks at the mucosal interface, as well as to discuss recent research on its role in regulating host functions that are disturbed in various diseases, with a specific focus on metabolic disorders in both animals and humans. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Methven L.,University of Reading | Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,University of Reading | Lawlor J.B.,Danone Nutricia Research
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Capturing the sensory perception and preferences of older adults, whether healthy or with particular disease states, poses major methodological challenges for the sensory community. Currently a vastly under researched area, it is at the same time a vital area of research as alterations in sensory perception can affect daily dietary food choices, intake, health and wellbeing. Tailored sensory methods are needed that take into account the challenges of working with such populations including poor access leading to low patient numbers (study power), cognitive abilities, use of medications, clinical treatments and context (hospitals and care homes). The objective of this paper was to review current analytical and affective sensory methodologies used with different cohorts of healthy and frail older adults, with focus on food preference and liking. We particularly drew attention to studies concerning general ageing as well as to those considering age-related diseases that have an emphasis on malnutrition and weight loss. Pubmed and Web of Science databases were searched to 2014 for relevant articles in English. From this search 75 papers concerning sensory acuity, 41 regarding perceived intensity and 73 relating to hedonic measures were reviewed. Simpler testing methods, such as directional forced choice tests and paired preference tests need to be further explored to determine whether they lead to more reliable results and better inter-cohort comparisons. Finally, sensory quality and related quality of life for older adults suffering from dementia must be included and not ignored in our future actions. © 2015.

Keunen K.,University Utrecht | Van Elburg R.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Van Elburg R.M.,Danone Nutricia Research | Van Bel F.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Research | Year: 2015

The impact of nutrition on brain development in preterm infants has been increasingly appreciated. Early postnatal growth and nutrient intake have been demonstrated to influence brain growth and maturation with subsequent effects on neurodevelopment that persist into childhood and adolescence. Nutrition could also potentially protect against injury. Inflammation and perinatal infection play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of white matter injury, the most common pattern of brain injury in preterm infants. Therefore, nutritional components with immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects may serve as neuroprotective agents. Moreover, growing evidence supports the existence of a microbiome-gut-brain axis. The microbiome is thought to interact with the brain through immunological, endocrine, and neural pathways. Consequently, nutritional components that may influence gut microbiota may also exert beneficial effects on the developing brain. Based on these properties, probiotics, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and certain amino acids are potential candidates for neuroprotection. In addition, the amino acid glutamine has been associated with a decrease in infectious morbidity in preterm infants. In conclusion, early postnatal nutrition is of major importance for brain growth and maturation. Additionally, certain nutritional components might play a neuroprotective role against white matter injury, through modulation of inflammation and infection, and may influence the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Copyright © 2015 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

Lahlou S.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Lahlou S.,Paris Institute for Advanced Study | Le Bellu S.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Boesen-Mariani S.,Danone Nutricia Research
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science | Year: 2015

Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators’ gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed “how” of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wang S.,National University of Singapore | Wang S.,Danone Nutricia Research | Hibberd M.L.,Genome Institute of Singapore | Pettersson S.,Karolinska Institutet | Lee Y.K.,National University of Singapore
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Colonizing commensal bacteria after birth are required for the proper development of the gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that bacterial colonization pattern in neonatal gut affects gut barrier function and immune system maturation. Studies on the development of faecal microbiota in infants showed that the neonatal gut was first colonized with enterococci followed by other microbiota such as Bifidobacterium. Other studies showed that babies who developed allergy were less often colonized with Enterococcus during the first month of life as compared to healthy infants. Many studies have been conducted to elucidate how bifidobacteria or lactobacilli, some of which are considered probiotic, regulate infant gut immunity. However, fewer studies have been focused on enterococi. In our study, we demonstrate that E. faecalis, isolated from healthy newborns, suppress inflammatory responses activated in vivo and in vitro. We found E. faecalis attenuates proinflammatory cytokine secretions, especially IL-8, through JNK and p38 signaling pathways. This finding shed light on how the first colonizer, E.faecalis, regulates inflammatory responses in the host. © 2014 Wang et al.

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