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Schiphol, Netherlands

Meunier L.,Danone Food Safety Center | Garthoff J.A.,Danone Food Safety Center | Schaafsma A.,FrieslandCampina | Krul L.,TNO | And 4 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12. weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based guidance values, the present integrated safety review aimed to compile all the relevant preclinical toxicological studies and to combine them with substantial evidence gathered from the clinical paediatric use as part of the weight of evidence supporting the safety in young infants below 12. weeks of age. LBG was demonstrated to have very low toxicity in preclinical studies mainly resulting from its indigestible nature leading to negligible systemic bioavailability and only possibly influencing tolerance. A standard therapeutic level of 0.5. g/100. mL in thickened infant formula is shown to confer a sufficiently protective Margin of Safety. LBG was not associated with any adverse toxic or nutritional effects in healthy term infants, while there are limited case-reports of possible adverse effects in preterms receiving the thickener inappropriately. Altogether, it can be concluded that LBG is safe for its intended therapeutic use in term-born infants to treat uncomplicated regurgitation from birth onwards. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lenoir-Wijnkoop I.,University Utrecht | van der Beek E.M.,Danone Nutricia Early Life Nutrition | Garssen J.,University Utrecht | Garssen J.,Nutricia Research | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology

Background: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Objective: Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. Results: The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Conclusion: Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country-specific data on the incidence of macrosomic births and health outcomes. In addition, it would be of interest to further explore the long-term health economic consequences of macrosomia and related risk factors. © 2015 Lenoir-Wijnkoop, van der Beek, Garssen, Nuijten and Uauy. Source

Zhou X.,Sichuan Provincial Academy of Medical science | Xue H.,University of Sichuan | Duan R.,University of Sichuan | Liu Y.,University of Sichuan | And 3 more authors.

Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI) and dietary energy density (ED) were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI) (p ď 0.04). However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Gallier S.,Danone Nutricia Early Life Nutrition | Vocking K.,University Utrecht | Post J.A.,University Utrecht | Van De Heijning B.,Danone Nutricia Early Life Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces

Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis®, comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis® may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF. © 2015 Z. Source

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