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Utrecht, Netherlands

Meunier L.,Danone Food Safety Center | Garthoff J.A.,Danone Food Safety Center | Schaafsma A.,FrieslandCampina | Krul L.,TNO | And 4 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12. weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based guidance values, the present integrated safety review aimed to compile all the relevant preclinical toxicological studies and to combine them with substantial evidence gathered from the clinical paediatric use as part of the weight of evidence supporting the safety in young infants below 12. weeks of age. LBG was demonstrated to have very low toxicity in preclinical studies mainly resulting from its indigestible nature leading to negligible systemic bioavailability and only possibly influencing tolerance. A standard therapeutic level of 0.5. g/100. mL in thickened infant formula is shown to confer a sufficiently protective Margin of Safety. LBG was not associated with any adverse toxic or nutritional effects in healthy term infants, while there are limited case-reports of possible adverse effects in preterms receiving the thickener inappropriately. Altogether, it can be concluded that LBG is safe for its intended therapeutic use in term-born infants to treat uncomplicated regurgitation from birth onwards. © 2014 The Authors.

Couvert O.,European University of Brittany | Couvert O.,147 Rue Of Luniversite | Pinon A.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille | Pinon A.,147 Rue Of Luniversite | And 22 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

A stochastic modelling approach was developed to describe the distribution of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in foods throughout their shelf life. This model was designed to include the main sources of variability leading to a scattering of natural contaminations observed in food portions: the variability of the initial contamination, the variability of the biological parameters such as cardinal values and growth parameters, the variability of individual cell behaviours, the variability of pH and water activity of food as well as portion size, and the variability of storage temperatures. Simulated distributions of contamination were compared to observed distributions obtained on 5 day-old and 11 day-old cheese curd surfaces artificially contaminated with between 10 and 80 stressed cells and stored at 14 °C, to a distribution observed in cold smoked salmon artificially contaminated with approximately 13 stressed cells and stored at 8 °C, and to contaminations observed in naturally contaminated batches of smoked salmon processed by 10 manufacturers and stored for 10 days a 4 °C and then for 20 days at 8 °C. The variability of simulated contaminations was close to that observed for artificially and naturally contaminated foods leading to simulated statistical distributions properly describing the observed distributions. This model seems relevant to take into consideration the natural variability of processes governing the microbial behaviour in foods and is an effective approach to assess, for instance, the probability to exceed a critical threshold during the storage of foods like the limit of 100. CFU/g in the case of L. monocytogenes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ter Wee P.,Medical Center | Kuhn M.,Nutricia Research | van der Woude H.,Danone Food Safety Center | van de Looverbosch D.,University of Antwerp | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2016

Background/Objective: High protein oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are regularly prescribed to undernourished patients; however usage of these in older adults is being discussed, as their renal function might have declined with age. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 8 week long consumption of high protein ONS on the renal function of nursing home residents in need of supplementation. Furthermore, within the same setup, differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance between a standard and a more concentrated version of an ONS were investigated. Design: Randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group, multi-country trial (NTR2565). Setting: Nursing home. Participants: 67 nursing home residents in need of ONS (energy-dense, small volume group n=32; standard volume group n=35). Intervention: Protein supplementation was provided by either a standard (200ml, 300kcal, 20g protein) or an energy-dense, small volume (125ml, 300kcal, 18g protein) ONS during the 8 week long study. Measurements: Primary outcome was gastro-intestinal tolerance, assessed by daily stool frequency and consistency, and occurrence and intensity of self-reported gastro-intestinal symptoms. Safety was measured via the occurrence of (serious) adverse events, vital signs, as well as liver- and kidney function monitoring. Results: No clinically relevant and, except for flatulence, no statistically significant differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance were observed between groups. No significant difference between groups was found for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at baseline and week 8, nor for the changes from baseline. Adverse events and the changes in monitored renal parameters over the study period did not point to a deterioration of renal function. Conclusion: High protein ONS seems to be well-tolerated and safe; there is no indication that it affects renal function in nursing home residents, including patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease, under the conditions tested. Results did not suggest a difference in the effect on renal function between standard and energy-dense small volume ONS format. © 2016 Serdi and Springer-Verlag France

Rovida C.,University of Konstanz | Asakura S.,Eisai Co. | Daneshian M.,University of Konstanz | Hofman-Huether H.,Eurofins | And 9 more authors.
Altex | Year: 2015

After the publication of the report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century ... A Vision and a Strategy, many initiatives started to foster a major paradigm shift for toxicity testing ... from apical endpoints in animal-based tests to mechanistic endpoints through delineation of pathways of toxicity (PoT) in human cell based systems. The US EPA has funded an important project to develop new high throughput technologies based on human cell based in vitro technologies. These methods are currently being incorporated into the chemical risk assessment process. In the pharmaceutical industry, the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs are evaluated during preclinical investigations that include drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety toxicology studies. The results of these studies are analyzed and extrapolated to predict efficacy and potential adverse effects in humans. However, due to the high failure rate of drugs during the clinical phases, a new approach for a more predictive assessment of drugs both in terms of efficacy and adverse effects is getting urgent. The food industry faces the challenge of assessing novel foods and food ingredients for the general population, while using animal safety testing for extrapolation purposes is often of limited relevance. The question is whether the latest paradigm shift proposed by the Tox21c report for chemicals may provide a useful tool to improve the risk assessment approach also for drugs and food ingredients.

Blaauboer B.J.,University Utrecht | Boobis A.R.,Imperial College London | Bradford B.,Unilever | Cockburn A.,Newcastle University | And 8 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Toxicology and safety assessment are changing and require new strategies for evaluating risk that are less depending on apical toxicity endpoints in animal models and relying more on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity. This manuscript describes a number of developments that could contribute to this change and implement this in a stepwise roadmap that can be applied for the evaluation of food and food ingredients.The roadmap was evaluated in four case studies by using literature and existing data. This preliminary evaluation was shown to be useful. However, this experience should be extended by including examples where experimental work needs to be included. To further implement these new insights in toxicology and safety assessment for the area of food and food ingredients, the recommendation is that stakeholders take action in addressing gaps in our knowledge, e.g. with regard to the applicability of the roadmap for mixtures and food matrices. Further development of the threshold of toxicological concern is needed, as well as cooperation with other sectors where similar schemes are under development. Moreover, a more comprehensive evaluation of the roadmap, also including the identification of the need for in vitro experimental work is recommended. © 2016 ILSI Europe.

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