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Morgan P.J.,University of Newcastle | Warren J.M.,Danone Baby Nutrition | Lubans D.R.,University of Newcastle | Saunders K.L.,University of Newcastle | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To investigate the impact of school garden-enhanced nutrition education (NE) on childrens fruit and vegetable consumption, vegetable preferences, fruit and vegetable knowledge and quality of school life.Design Quasi-experimental 10-week intervention with nutrition education and garden (NE&G), NE only and control groups. Fruit and vegetable knowledge, vegetable preferences (willingness to taste and taste ratings), fruit and vegetable consumption (24 h recall 2) and quality of school life (QoSL) were measured at baseline and 4-month follow-up.Setting Two primary schools in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia.Subjects A total of 127 students in Grades 5 and 6 (11-12 years old; 54 % boys).Results Relative to controls, significant between-group differences were found for NE&G and NE students for overall willingness to taste vegetables (P < 0001) and overall taste ratings of vegetables (P < 0001). A treatment effect was found for the NE&G group for: ability to identify vegetables (P < 0001); willingness to taste capsicum (P = 004), broccoli (P = 001), tomato (P < 0001) and pea (P = 002); and student preference to eat broccoli (P < 0001) and pea (P < 0001) as a snack. No group-by-time differences were found for vegetable intake (P = 022), fruit intake (P = 023) or QoSL (P = 098).Conclusions School gardens can impact positively on primary-school students willingness to taste vegetables and their vegetable taste ratings, but given the complexity of dietary behaviour change, more comprehensive strategies are required to increase vegetable intake. Copyright © 2010 The Authors.

Collins C.E.,University of Newcastle | Morgan P.J.,University of Newcastle | Warren J.M.,Danone Baby Nutrition | Warren J.M.,MRC Human Nutrition Research | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2011

Objective To describe dietary changes in men participating in an obesity intervention as part of the Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Information Technology (SHED-IT) study.Design An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial comparing Internet (n 34) v. information-only groups (n 31) with 6-month follow-up. Dietary intake assessed by FFQ, reporting usual consumption of seventy-four foods and six alcoholic beverages using a 10-point frequency scale. A single portion size (PSF) factor was calculated based on photographs to indicate usual serving sizes.Setting The campus community of the University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.Subjects Sixty-five overweight/obese men (43 % students, 42 % non-academic general staff, 15 % academic staff; mean age 359 (sd 111) years, mean BMI 306 (sd 28) kg/m2).Results The average PSF decreased significantly over time (χ2 = 209, df = 5, P < 0001) with no differences between groups. While both groups reduced mean daily energy intake (GLM χ2 = 345, df = 3, P < 0001), there was a trend towards a greater reduction in the Internet group (GLM χ2 = 33, P = 007). Both groups reduced percentage of energy from fat (P < 005), saturated fat (P < 0001) and energy-dense/nutrient-poor items (P < 005), with no change in dietary fibre or alcohol (P > 005).Conclusions Although men reported some positive dietary changes during weight loss, they did not increase vegetable intakes nor decrease alcohol consumption, while saturated fat, fibre and Na intakes still exceeded national targets. Future interventions for men should promote specific food-based guidelines to target improvements in their diet-related risk factor profile for chronic diseases. © 2010 The Authors.

Morgan P.J.,University of Newcastle | Collins C.E.,University of Newcastle | Plotnikoff R.C.,University of Newcastle | McElduff P.,University of Newcastle | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Obesity is a major cause of preventable death in Australia with prevalence increasing at an alarming rate. Of particular concern is that approximately 68% of men are overweight/obese, yet are notoriously difficult to engage in weight loss programs, despite being more susceptible than women to adverse weight-related outcomes. There is a need to develop and evaluate obesity treatment programs that target and appeal to men. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two relatively low intensity weight loss programs developed specifically for men. Methods and Design. The study design is an assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised controlled trial that recruited 159 overweight and obese men in Newcastle, Australia. Inclusion criteria included: BMI 25-40 (kg/m2); no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire and pre-exercise risk assessment; available for assessment sessions; access to a computer with e-mail and Internet facilities; and own a mobile phone. Men were recruited to the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology) study via the media and emails sent to male dominated workplaces. Men were stratified by BMI category (overweight, obese class I, obese class II) and randomised to one of three groups: (1) SHED-IT Resources - provision of materials (DVD, handbooks, pedometer, tape measure) with embedded behaviour change strategies to support weight loss; (2) SHED-IT Online - same materials as SHED-IT Resources plus access to and instruction on how to use the study website; (3) Wait-list Control. The intervention programs are three months long with outcome measures taken by assessors blinded to group allocation at baseline, and 3- and 6-months post baseline. Outcome measures include: weight (primary outcome), % body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, objectively measured physical activity, self-reported dietary intake, sedentary behaviour, physical activity and dietary cognitions, sleepiness, quality of life, and perceived sexual health. Generalised linear mixed models will be used to assess all outcomes for the impact of group (Resources, Online, and Control), time (treated as categorical with levels baseline, 3-months and 6-months) and the group-by-time interaction. These three terms will form the base model. 'Intention-to-treat' analysis will include all randomised participants. Discussion. Our study will compare evidence-based and theoretically driven, low cost and easily disseminated strategies specifically targeting weight loss in men. The SHED-IT community trial will provide evidence to inform development and dissemination of sustainable strategies to reduce obesity in men. © 2010 Morgan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jaenke R.L.,University of Newcastle | Collins C.E.,University of Newcastle | Morgan P.J.,University of Newcastle | Lubans D.R.,University of Newcastle | And 2 more authors.
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the impact of a school garden and nutrition curriculum on fruit and vegetable intake, willingness to taste, and taste ratings in 127 children (11 to 12 years, 54% boys) in regional New South Wales, Australia. Classes were assigned to wait-list control, nutrition education only (NE), or nutrition education plus garden (NE + G) groups. Carrot taste rating was the only vegetable for which there was a significant gender difference, with girls rating it more highly (p = 04). There were no significant gender differences in fruit and vegetable consumption or willingness to taste scores for any other vegetables. There was a group effect (p < 001) for overall willingness to taste, overall taste rating, and the taste rating of pea and broccoli (p < 001), tomato (p = 03), and lettuce (p = 02). In the post hoc analysis by gender, both boys and girls in NE + G and NE groups were more willing to taste vegetables compared with control boys and girls postintervention (p & 001, p = 02). Boys in the NE + G group were more willing to taste all vegetables overall compared with NE boys at posttest (p = 05) and this approached significance for girls (p = 07). For overall tasting scores, a group effect was seen in girls only (p = 05). No significant treatment-time effect was found for vegetable intake in either gender. Further research is needed to examine whether a school garden, with or without school curriculum components, can be used to optimize fruit and vegetable intakes, particularly in boys. © 2012 Society for Public Health Education.

MacLean Jr. W.C.,Ohio State University | Van Dael P.,Mead Johnson Nutrition Company | Clemens R.,University of Southern California | Davies J.,Collegeville | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010

The Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a revised standard for infant formula in 2007. This standard provides a regulatory framework for infant formula, including provisions for its essential composition. The recommendations for the essential composition specify minimum levels and either maximum values (MVs) or guidance upper levels (GULs) for 31 nutrients. As part of the revision process, the first cooperative survey of levels of nutrients in infant formulas was conducted by several global manufacturers. Whereas formulas met proposed minimum levels of all nutrients, 15 nutrients were identified whose levels were likely to exceed the proposed MV or GUL: vitamins A and K, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6, folic acid, vitamin B 12, vitamin C, iron, copper, manganese, potassium and iodine. Analytical data were collected for those nutrients from 21,385 batches of milk-based infant formula and 9070 batches of soy-based infant formula, whose total volumes were sufficient to feed more than 33 million infants for periods of three months. The number of batches analyzed ranged from 440 (vitamin K) to 27,920 (vitamin C). Of nutrients with an MV, only levels of vitamin A in some batches exceeded the maximum; no batch contained levels previously reported in the literature to be associated with adverse effects. There were several nutrients with GULs for which there were batches that exceeded the suggested upper limit. Data for some nutrients showed considerable variability, which related to form (liquid vs. powder), inherent levels of nutrients in formula ingredients, protein source, nutrient stability, analytical variability and effects of process, package and container size. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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