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Rakoczy-Trojanowska M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Rakoczy-Trojanowska M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Krajewski P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Bocianowski J.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | And 11 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2017

Rye is a crop with relatively high resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the resistance to brown rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. secalis) and pre-harvest sprouting are still not satisfactory. High α-amylase activity is also among the main disadvantages of this species. Therefore, effective tools, e.g. molecular markers, allowing precise and environmentally independent selection of favourable alleles are desirable. In the present study, two kinds of association mapping—genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) based on sequences of DArTSeq markers and candidate gene association mapping (CGAM) based on sequences of ScBx genes—were chosen for development of molecular markers fulfilling these criteria. The analysed population consisted of 149 diverse inbred lines (DILs). Altogether, 67 and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in, respectively, GWAM and CGAM, were significantly associated with the investigated traits: 2 SNPs with resistance to brown rust, 71 SNPs with resistance to pre-harvest sprouting and 5 SNPs with α-amylase activity in the grain. Fifteen SNPs were stable across all environments. The highest number (13) of environmentally stable SNPs was associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance. The test employing the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR method proved the versatility of four markers identified in both GWAM and CGAM. © 2017 The Author(s)

Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell.) – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale). After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3) to 26.90 (STH 715). The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4) to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species. © The Author(s) 2016.

Szewinska J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Zdunek-Zastocka E.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Pojmaj M.,DANKO Plant Breeders Ltd. | Bielawski W.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

Three triticale cDNAs encoding inhibitors of cysteine endopeptidases, belonging to phytocystatins, have been identified and designated as TrcC-1, TrcC-4 and TrcC-5. Full-length cDNAs of TrcC-1 (617 bp) and TrcC-4 (940 bp), as well as a fragment of TrcC-5 cDNA (369 bp), were obtained. A high-level identity of the deduced amino acid sequence of TrcCs with other known phytocystatins, especially with wheat and barley, has been observed. Moreover, the presence of conserved domain, containing the G and W residues, the sequence of QxVxG and the sequence of LARFAV, characteristic for plant cysteine endopeptidase inhibitors, has been noted. The profiles of TrcC-1 and TrcC-5 mRNA levels in the developing seeds of two triticale cultivars that differ in their resistance to preharvest sprouting (Zorro and Disco) were similar. However, the expression of TrcC-4 was, higher in the developing seeds, and in the scutellum of germinating seeds of a cultivar more resistant to preharvest sprouting (Zorro) than in the less resistant (Disco). Additionally, the expression of TrcC-4 remained longer in developing seeds of Zorro as compared to Disco. The performed studies suggest that TrcC-4 might have an influence on the higher resistance of Zorro cultivar to preharvest sprouting. © 2011 The Author(s).

Pecio L.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Wawrzyniak-Szolkowska A.,Danko Plant Breeders Ltd. | Oleszek W.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Stochmal A.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Avenacosides A (AA) and B (AB) as well as 26-desglucoavenacoside A (26dAA) were quantified in oats using rapid and sensitive method utilising UPLC-TQ-MS. In the grain, AA and AB were revealed as the primary saponins, whereas in the husks, dAA was predominant. Inconsistent with the published data, observed concentrations of AA and AB in the grain were very similar. Presumably, this is due to higher sensitivity and better selectivity of the mass spectrometry-based quantification method, thus allowing for more precise measurements. Elevated level of an active fungicidal form of saponin, dAA in the husks possibly indicates they are more prone to fungal attacks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hura T.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Hura K.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Grzesiak S.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Banaszak Z.,Danko Plant Breeders Ltd.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2010

PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress caused differences in the relative water content (RWC), in the leaves of tested varieties of winter triticale. The highest values of RWC were observed for the Hortenso, Kazo and Gniewko varieties. The observed, low values of osmotic potential, allow one to conclude, that these varieties have adapted to stress conditions by maintaining the osmoregulation. Since osmotic tolerance is part of drought tolerance, the ability to maintain the osmotic regulation can be an important factor in the selection of varieties/genotypes resistant to the water deficit in the soil. The effectiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus was observed for above-mentioned varieties, with high values of RWC. The response test to the osmotic stress induced by the PEG solution, carried out under laboratory conditions, justified the decision to include Timbo in the group of drought resistant plants and as a standard physiological response to drought.

Irzykowska L.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Kosiada T.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Bojarczuk J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | Materka M.,Poznan Plant Breeders Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2015

Claviceps purpurea causes ergot, a serious disease of rye and grasses. Resistance genes to the pathogen have not been found in the genome of rye so far. Therefore we evaluated 90 rye genotypes in two seasons at three locations and analyzed the ergot incidence. In one location (Smolice) the same genotypes were also used to assess the influence of water spraying during rye flowering on ergot occurrence. Moreover, 29 cytoplasmic male-sterile genotypes of rye were used in Poznań, where within a 5 km distance there were no rye plants. In the first two experiments the source of the pathogen consisted of its sclerotia introduced into the soil, whereas in the third experiment a suspension of conidiospores was used to spray the plants from the moment of first flowering. Percentage of sclerotia in grain by weight in the first two experiments and sclerotia weight per ear in the third experiment were used as a measure of rye susceptibility to C. purpurea. Both rye genotype and location (weather conditions) showed significant variation for both traits. Low temperature and rainfall during rye flowering increased the occurrence of ergot. Water spraying of rye during flowering also boosted the occurrence of ergot. In another experiment, with sclerotia of C. purpurea used as inocula, ergot occurrence varied from 0 to 4.73 % in 2011/12 and from 0 to 5.22 % of sclerotia in grain yield in 2012/13. Cytoplasmic male-sterile rye inoculation with conidia of C. purpurea resulted in sclerotia presence which ranged from 0.10 to 0.26 g per ear. © 2014, The Author(s).

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