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Sorensen So.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DVFA | Lund K.H.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DVFA | Cederberg T.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Ballin N.Z.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DVFA
Food Control | Year: 2016

Salmon and herring from the Baltic Sea are prohibited for sale for human consumption in the European Union or only allowed to be marketed under certain conditions. Fish from certain specific geographical origins also command higher prices in the market than fish from elsewhere. It is, therefore, important to be able to enforce correct labeling of geographical origin through authentication. One authentication strategy is to examine trace markers specific for a geographical origin. The chemical contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were released inhomogeneously into the environment for many years and may therefore be suitable as markers. This study comprises PCBs and PCDD/Fs analyses of 79 samples of salmon originating from Canada, Chile, China, Norway, USA, Vietnam, and the Baltic Sea near Denmark, all sampled from 2002 through 2015. Principal component analyses (PCA) were built from the combined PCB and PCDD/F profile as well as separately from the individual PCB and PCDD/F profiles. Use of the PCB profile for the PCA provided stronger power to distinguish between salmon of different geographical origin than using the PCDD/F profile or the combined profiles. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Mikkelsen A.T.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DVFA | Jessen F.,Technical University of Denmark | Ballin N.Z.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DVFA
Food Control | Year: 2014

Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility that other pine species than P.armandii could be involved in PNS as well. This study investigated 18 samples involved in PNS and received at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration in 2011 through 2012. Samples were subjected to gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids. The content of 11 individual fatty acids was used together with the diagnostic index and the sum of δ5-fatty acids as diagnostic parameters. Diagnostic parameters from samples were then compared to reference material and literature data to determine the species. In a limited number of samples, the diagnostic parameters matched neither our reference materials nor literature data. However, the morphology, the fatty acid analysis, and externally obtained DNA sequencing data suggest a P.armandii subspecies or a variety. With these possible P.armandii subspecies, P.armandii was identified in all analyzed samples. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) to the data set showed a satisfactory separation of the majority of the 13 pine species included in the study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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