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Olsen R.H.,Copenhagen University | Stockholm N.M.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration | Permin A.,DHI | Christensen J.P.,Copenhagen University | And 2 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2011

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains originating from 10 free-range layer flocks were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing and plasmid profile analysis to investigate their phylogenetic relationship and diversity, respectively. In addition to colibacillosis, all flocks tested positive for antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) during production, and six of the flocks were concurrently affected by histomonosis. Accumulated average mortality for flocks concurrently affected by colibacillosis and histomonosis made up 17.4%, while the average mortality for E. coli-infected flocks was 16.5%. A total of eight different sequence types (STs) and 47 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated among the E. coli isolates. Within each flock between one and four different STs and between three and 13 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A statistical significant difference in STs and plasmid profile diversity of the population of E. coli was not demonstrated between flocks affected by histomonosis compared with histomonosis-free flocks. Only minor clonal diversity was demonstrated for each flock, and in all but one flock colibacillosis started before antibodies against aMPV were detected. All isolates, except two, carried plasmids greater than 100 kb, but only a single plasmid replicon type, IncFIB, was demonstrated, suggesting plasmids representing this type might represent a common pathogenicity factor for the different STs of E. coli.Within each flock a clonal tendency was observed, indicating that only certain clones of E. coli possess a significant pathogenic potential. These clones act as primary rather than secondary pathogens, resulting in colibacillosis without predisposing factors, including histomonosis and aMPV. © 2011 Houghton Trust Ltd.

Leth T.,Technical University of Denmark | Christensen T.,Technical University of Denmark | Larsen I.K.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

The monitoring of food additives and recent dietary surveys carried out in Denmark have earlier been used to estimate the intake of sweeteners and nitrite in relation to acceptable daily intakes. The ubiquitous use of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids raises the question of the magnitude of the intake of these preservatives in relation to acceptable daily intakes. This area is explored in this paper. The content of benzoic and sorbic acids in all food groups, where they are allowed, was monitored in Denmark 17 times between 2001 and 2006 with a total of 1526 samples. Transgressions of maximum limits, illegal use or declaration faults were found in about 3% of samples. From repeated investigations on fat-based foods (salads and dressings), marmalade and stewed fruit, it is concluded that the amounts used in industry have been relatively stable throughout the whole period, although limited data for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were calculated with data from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (age from 4 to 75 years) conducted in 2000-2004 with 5785 participants. The median intakes of both benzoic acid and sorbic acid are well below the acceptable daily intakes of 0-5 and 0-25mg kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1 for benzoic and sorbic acid, respectively. However, the 90th percentile based on the average of the samples with a content of benzoic acid is higher than the acceptable daily intake for both men and women, with the highest value of 16 mgkg-1 bw day-1 for both boys and girls in the 4-6-year-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years, and the 90th percentile for men up to 18 years and for women up to 10 years. Soft drinks, salads and dressings are the main contributors to benzoic acid intake. The sorbic acid intake based on the average of all samples is well below the acceptable daily intake. However, for the intake based on the average of samples with content, the 95th percentile exceeds the acceptable daily intake. This is caused by the dominating contribution to the intake of sorbic acid from sliced bread, but since only seven out of 42 samples have added sorbic acid, the calculation based on the average of samples with content will exaggerate the intake. With a built-in safety factor of 100 in the acceptable daily intakes and judging from the literature, the high intakes of benzoic acid should not cause any concern for ill-effects. However, there must be a reason to reconsider the maximum limits especially for benzoic acid in soft drinks, dressings and salads and for sorbic acid in sliced bread. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Ethelberg S.,Statens Serum Institute | Lisby M.,Regional Veterinary and Food Control Authority East | Bottiger B.,Statens Serum Institute | Schultz A.C.,Technical University of Denmark | And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France was found to be the vehicle.

Nielsen L.R.,Copenhagen University | Baggesen D.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Aabo S.,Technical University of Denmark | Moos M.K.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration | Rattenborg E.,Knowledge Center for Agriculture
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007-2008. The animals came from 71 randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P=0.03) higher risk of delivering Salmonella-shedding calves to slaughter. The results emphasize the importance of efforts in the dairy industry to ensure food safety for consumers. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Schyth B.D.,Technical University of Denmark | Ariel E.,Technical University of Denmark | Ariel E.,James Cook University | Korsholm H.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration | Olesen N.J.,Technical University of Denmark
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Detection of disease specific antibodies in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to the currently approved procedures for diagnosis and surveillance in this species. In samples from natural outbreaks of the disease viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) at two freshwater farms in southern Denmark serologic testing was used to broaden the diagnostic window from outbreak to diagnosis in the laboratory as compared to traditional procedures of isolation and identification of the virus. The serologic assay clearly increased the chance of detecting present or previous infections where the pathogen could not be isolated by standard methods (indicating older infections where the virus had been cleared). Our data allowed us to monitor the levels of neutralising antibodies in relation to the presence of the virus in fish experiencing two different types of outbreaks at two different farms. By sequence analysis of the viral glycoprotein from selected isolates we found no evidence for escape mutants having developed in the fish showing high titres of neutralising antibodies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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