News Article | April 28, 2017
According to recommendations from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, adult Danes should consume at least 75 g whole meal a day. However, it is not only the contents of vitamins, minerals and fibers that make whole grain products such as rye bread and oatmeal healthy. Several studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between intake of whole grain and the risk of developing lifestyle diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. This concerns specifically lignans, which are diphenolic compounds found in all grain types. The content of lignans are higher in whole grains than in refined grains. Rye, in particular, has a high content of lignans. Once ingested, our intestinal bacteria metabolize the plant lignans into enterolignans, which have a chemical structure similar to oestrogen. The structure of enterolignans is the most likely reason why enterolignans have a positive effect in relation to the development of breast cancer. However, a large study carried out in a collaboration between Aarhus University and The Danish Cancer Society has now demonstrated that the use of antibiotics may counteract a series of beneficial effects of whole grain intake. The study is based on data from a large Danish cohort study, "Diets, Cancer and Health", where more than 57,000 Danes - in the period from 1993 to 1997 - submitted detailed information on their respective diets and lifestyles as well as biological material in the form of blood, adipose tissue, urine and toenails. Subsequently, more than 2200 participants have developed cancer in the period from 1996 to 2009. This particular group of people was examined in detail. Enterolignan levels were measured in blood and the results merged with data on their use of antibiotics, registered in The Danish National Prescription Registry. - It turns out that there is a significant correlation between use of antibiotics and lower enterolignan concentrations in the blood, especially for women. For women, who have used antibiotics up to three months prior to blood sampling the concentration was as much as 40 percent lower than for the women who did not use antibiotics, explains Professor Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Department of Animal Science at Aarhus University. He further explains that the study indicates that enterolignan levels in the blood is linked to time since use of antibiotics. He emphasizes that even after several months the concentration is still reduced indicating that the bacteria, which convert plant lignans to enterolignans remains affected for a longer period. - The results confirm our hypothesis, and also point towards the importance of maintaining a restrictive use of antibiotics. You will not achieve the full beneficial effects of whole grain, when the intestinal bacteria are negatively affected by antibiotics. Most likely, it also applies to a number of other compounds present in the diet and which require microbial conversion in order to have a positive effect on health, says Knud Erik Bach Knudsen. In order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the role of antibiotics in lignan metabolism, a controlled intervention study with pigs was carried out. This study also demonstrated that antibiotic treatments result in blood enterolignan concentrations that were 37 percent lower than in a control group that was not treated with antibiotics. - This is the first time that an animal experiment confirms a direct relationship between enterolignan concentrations and antibiotic treatments, says Knud Erik Bach Knudsen. As far as we know, this work is also the first to show that the negative effect of antibiotics on enterolactones is dependent on gender. Thus, there is a need for further studies to identify the reasons for this difference.
Olsen R.H.,Copenhagen University |
Stockholm N.M.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Permin A.,DHI |
Christensen J.P.,Copenhagen University |
And 2 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2011
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains originating from 10 free-range layer flocks were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing and plasmid profile analysis to investigate their phylogenetic relationship and diversity, respectively. In addition to colibacillosis, all flocks tested positive for antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) during production, and six of the flocks were concurrently affected by histomonosis. Accumulated average mortality for flocks concurrently affected by colibacillosis and histomonosis made up 17.4%, while the average mortality for E. coli-infected flocks was 16.5%. A total of eight different sequence types (STs) and 47 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated among the E. coli isolates. Within each flock between one and four different STs and between three and 13 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A statistical significant difference in STs and plasmid profile diversity of the population of E. coli was not demonstrated between flocks affected by histomonosis compared with histomonosis-free flocks. Only minor clonal diversity was demonstrated for each flock, and in all but one flock colibacillosis started before antibodies against aMPV were detected. All isolates, except two, carried plasmids greater than 100 kb, but only a single plasmid replicon type, IncFIB, was demonstrated, suggesting plasmids representing this type might represent a common pathogenicity factor for the different STs of E. coli.Within each flock a clonal tendency was observed, indicating that only certain clones of E. coli possess a significant pathogenic potential. These clones act as primary rather than secondary pathogens, resulting in colibacillosis without predisposing factors, including histomonosis and aMPV. © 2011 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Leth T.,Technical University of Denmark |
Christensen T.,Technical University of Denmark |
Larsen I.K.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010
The monitoring of food additives and recent dietary surveys carried out in Denmark have earlier been used to estimate the intake of sweeteners and nitrite in relation to acceptable daily intakes. The ubiquitous use of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids raises the question of the magnitude of the intake of these preservatives in relation to acceptable daily intakes. This area is explored in this paper. The content of benzoic and sorbic acids in all food groups, where they are allowed, was monitored in Denmark 17 times between 2001 and 2006 with a total of 1526 samples. Transgressions of maximum limits, illegal use or declaration faults were found in about 3% of samples. From repeated investigations on fat-based foods (salads and dressings), marmalade and stewed fruit, it is concluded that the amounts used in industry have been relatively stable throughout the whole period, although limited data for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were calculated with data from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (age from 4 to 75 years) conducted in 2000-2004 with 5785 participants. The median intakes of both benzoic acid and sorbic acid are well below the acceptable daily intakes of 0-5 and 0-25mg kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1 for benzoic and sorbic acid, respectively. However, the 90th percentile based on the average of the samples with a content of benzoic acid is higher than the acceptable daily intake for both men and women, with the highest value of 16 mgkg-1 bw day-1 for both boys and girls in the 4-6-year-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years, and the 90th percentile for men up to 18 years and for women up to 10 years. Soft drinks, salads and dressings are the main contributors to benzoic acid intake. The sorbic acid intake based on the average of all samples is well below the acceptable daily intake. However, for the intake based on the average of samples with content, the 95th percentile exceeds the acceptable daily intake. This is caused by the dominating contribution to the intake of sorbic acid from sliced bread, but since only seven out of 42 samples have added sorbic acid, the calculation based on the average of samples with content will exaggerate the intake. With a built-in safety factor of 100 in the acceptable daily intakes and judging from the literature, the high intakes of benzoic acid should not cause any concern for ill-effects. However, there must be a reason to reconsider the maximum limits especially for benzoic acid in soft drinks, dressings and salads and for sorbic acid in sliced bread. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Ethelberg S.,Statens Serum Institute |
Lisby M.,Regional Veterinary and Food Control Authority East |
Bottiger B.,Statens Serum Institute |
Schultz A.C.,Technical University of Denmark |
And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010
At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France was found to be the vehicle.
Nielsen L.R.,Copenhagen University |
Baggesen D.L.,Technical University of Denmark |
Aabo S.,Technical University of Denmark |
Moos M.K.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Rattenborg E.,Knowledge Center for Agriculture
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007-2008. The animals came from 71 randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P=0.03) higher risk of delivering Salmonella-shedding calves to slaughter. The results emphasize the importance of efforts in the dairy industry to ensure food safety for consumers. © Cambridge University Press 2010.
Schyth B.D.,Technical University of Denmark |
Ariel E.,Technical University of Denmark |
Ariel E.,James Cook University |
Korsholm H.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Olesen N.J.,Technical University of Denmark
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012
Detection of disease specific antibodies in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to the currently approved procedures for diagnosis and surveillance in this species. In samples from natural outbreaks of the disease viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) at two freshwater farms in southern Denmark serologic testing was used to broaden the diagnostic window from outbreak to diagnosis in the laboratory as compared to traditional procedures of isolation and identification of the virus. The serologic assay clearly increased the chance of detecting present or previous infections where the pathogen could not be isolated by standard methods (indicating older infections where the virus had been cleared). Our data allowed us to monitor the levels of neutralising antibodies in relation to the presence of the virus in fish experiencing two different types of outbreaks at two different farms. By sequence analysis of the viral glycoprotein from selected isolates we found no evidence for escape mutants having developed in the fish showing high titres of neutralising antibodies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Kuhn K.G.,Statens Serum Institute |
Torpdahl M.,Statens Serum Institute |
Frank C.,Robert Koch Institute |
Sigsgaard K.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Ethelberg S.,Statens Serum Institute
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2011
Between April and June 2010, a small national outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium with a particular multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) type was identified in Denmark through laboratory-based surveillance. The outbreak involved twenty cases, primarily living within the greater Copenhagen area. Half of the cases were children aged ten years or younger and 12 were male; three cases were hospitalised. A matched case-control study showed a strong link between illness and eating a particular salami product containing pork and venison, matched odds ratio (mOR):150, confidence interval (CI): 19-1,600. The salami had been produced in Germany. Microbiological confirmation in food samples was sought but not obtained. Danish consumers were notified that they should return or dispose of any packages from the suspected salami batch. Because the salami product had potentially been sold in other European countries, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control urgent enquiry and Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed systems were used to highlight the possibility of outbreaks in these countries. Case-control studies are a strong tool in some outbreak investigations and evidence from such studies may give sufficient information to recall a food product.
Alban L.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council |
Rugbjerg H.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Petersen J.V.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council |
Nielsen L.R.,Copenhagen University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016
In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs.A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR = within-herd prevalence > 40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled.The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of more residue cases with higher cost-effectiveness than random monitoring. Sampling 7500 HR pigs and 5000 LR pigs resulted in the most cost-effective monitoring among the alternative scenarios. The associated costs would increase by 4%. A scenario involving testing of 5000 HR and 5000 LR animals would result in slightly fewer positives, but 17% savings in costs. The advantages of using HPLC LC-MS/MS compared to the bioassay are a fast response and a high sensitivity for all relevant substances used in pigs. The Danish abattoir companies have implemented a risk-based monitoring similar to the above per January 2016. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Ballin N.Z.,Danish Veterinary and Food Administration |
Ballin N.Z.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2012
During the last few years, thousands of cases of pine nut-related dysgeusia have been reported. The symptoms involved are predominantly related to taste disturbances such as a constant bitter or metallic taste. The taste disturbance has been reported to occur 1-2 days after ingestion of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii. This paper describes a small trial where six volunteers consumed six to eight pine nuts suspected to cause dysgeusia. Incubation periods, symptoms and their duration were recorded. The trial showed that all subjects had developed symptoms of pine nut-related dysgeusia. Four out of six subjects experienced the classical bitter and metallic taste 1-2 days after ingestion. Two subjects experienced minor symptoms such as dryness and a sensation of enlarged tonsils. After the disappearance of symptoms, laboratory tests determined the pine nuts to originate from the species of P. armandii. A follow-up conversation with the subjects after 1 year showed no recurrent symptoms. © 2012 American College of Medical Toxicology.
PubMed | Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and Technical University of Denmark
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2016
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic duration was predicted to be 21days (5th and 95th percentiles; 1-55days), the median number of infected herds was predicted to be 3 herds (1-8), and the total costs were predicted to be 326 million (256-442 million). Adding pre-emptive depopulation or intensive surveillance by testing live animals resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario reduced the epidemic duration to 9days (1-38) and the total costs to 294 million (257-392 million). Export losses were the driving force of the total costs of the epidemics.