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Engineering, Denmark

Mohanty S.,Technical University of Denmark | Alm M.,BioModics ApS | Hemmingsen M.,Technical University of Denmark | Dolatshahi-Pirouz A.,Technical University of Denmark | And 5 more authors.

Scaffolds with multiple functionalities have attracted widespread attention in the field of tissue engineering due to their ability to control cell behavior through various cues, including mechanical, chemical, and electrical. Fabrication of such scaffolds from clinically approved materials is currently a huge challenge. The goal of this work was to fabricate a tissue engineering scaffold from clinically approved materials with the capability of delivering biomolecules and direct cell fate. We have used a simple 3D printing approach, that combines polymer casting with supercritical fluid technology to produce 3D interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffold of silicone-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (pHEMA-co-PEGMEA). The pHEMA-co-PEGMEA IPN materials were employed to support growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), resulting in high cell viability and metabolic activity over a 3 weeks period. In addition, the IPN scaffolds support 3D tissue formation inside the porous scaffold with well spread cell morphology on the surface of the scaffold. As a proof of concept, sustained doxycycline (DOX) release from pHEMA-co-PEGMEA IPN was demonstrated and the biological activity of released drug from IPN was confirmed using a DOX regulated green fluorescent reporter (GFP) gene expression assay with HeLa cells. Given its unique mechanical and drug releasing characteristics, IPN scaffolds may be used for directing stem cell differentiation by releasing various chemicals from its hydrogel network. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Mohanty S.,Technical University of Denmark | Larsen L.B.,Technical University of Denmark | Trifol J.,Danish Polymer Center | Szabo P.,Danish Polymer Center | And 5 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering C

One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting process. The PVA mould network defines the channels and is dissolved after curing the polymer casted around it. The printing parameters determined the PVA filament density in the sacrificial structure and this density resulted in different stiffness of the corresponding elastomer replica. It was possible to achieve 80% porosity corresponding to about 150 cm2/cm3 surface to volume ratio. The process is easily scalable as demonstrated by fabricating a 75 cm3 scaffold with about 16,000 interconnected channels (about 1 m2 surface area) and with a channel to channel distance of only 78 μm. To our knowledge this is the largest scaffold ever to be produced with such small feature sizes and with so many structured channels. The fabricated scaffolds were applied for in-vitro culturing of hepatocytes over a 12-day culture period. Smaller scaffolds (6 × 4 mm) were tested for cell culturing and could support homogeneous cell growth throughout the scaffold. Presumably, the diffusion of oxygen and nutrient throughout the channel network is rapid enough to support cell growth. In conclusion, the described process is scalable, compatible with cell culture, rapid, and inexpensive. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Mohanty S.,Technical University of Denmark | Sanger K.,Technical University of Denmark | Heiskanen A.,Technical University of Denmark | Trifol J.,Danish Polymer Center | And 4 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering C

Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(∈-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible with different polymers, making it suitable for engineering various large scale organs/tissues. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Van Ruymbeke E.,Catholic University of Louvain | Nielsen J.,Danish Polymer Center | Hassager O.,Danish Polymer Center
Journal of Rheology

In this manuscript, we extend the tube-based model that we developed for predicting the linear viscoelasticity of entangled polymers [van Ruymbeke, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 128, 7-22 (2005)] to the prediction of the extensional rheology of monodisperse and bidisperse linear polymers and confront the results to experimental data. This model is based on the concepts of stretch-orientation separability [McLeish and Larson, J. Rheol. 42, 81-110 (1998)] and inter-chain pressure [Marrucci and Ianniruberto, Macromolecules 37, 3934-3942 (2004)]. In order to deal with polydisperse samples, a new mixing law is proposed. As it does not require knowledge of the full linear relaxation spectrum, the proposed model is a powerful predictive tool. Very good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results. For bidisperse samples, the individual contribution of each component is determined, and it is shown that only few percent of long chains are enough to generate the strong strain hardening observed in the experimental data. Last, we discuss the value of the tube diameter relaxation time. For monodisperse samples, this parameter is found to scale with M 2. However, for bidisperse samples, as it was already observed by Wagner [J. Rheol. 52, 67-86 (2008)], the tube diameter relaxation time of the long component must be rescaled, which is contrary to the inter-chain pressure model and opens several new questions. © 2010 The Society of Rheology. Source

Mazurek P.,Danish Polymer Center | Yu L.,Danish Polymer Center | Skov A.L.,Danish Polymer Center
Journal of Applied Polymer Science

A recently reported novel class of elastomers was tested with respect to its dielectric properties. The new elastomer material is based on a commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) composition, which has been modified by embedding glycerol droplets into its matrix. The approach has two major advantages that make the material useful in a dielectric actuator. First, the glycerol droplets efficiently enhance the dielectric constant, which can reach astonishingly high values in the composite. Second, the liquid filler also acts as a softener that effectively decreases the elastic modulus of the composite. In combination with very low cost and easy preparation, the two property enhancements lead to an extremely attractive dielectric elastomer material. Experimental permittivity data are compared to various theoretical models that predict relative permittivity changes as a function of filler loading, and the applicability of the models is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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